Week 23 Notes for Intro to Modern Europe
Week 23 Notes for Intro to Modern Europe HIST 3480
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub 2/8/16 -French Revolution, 1789-99 -Aristocrats -Upper Middle Class -Lower Middle -Sans-Culottes -Peasants -Ideas -Financial Crisis -Estate-General -Versailles, May 1789 -June, Tennis Court Oath -June 1789 – August 1792 -Bastille, July 14, 1789 -Great Fear July-August 1789 -Women of Paris, October 1789 -Louis XVI -Feudalism -Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen -Civil Constitution of the Clergy -Constitution, 1781 -Enclosure -Le Chapelier Law 1791 -August 1792 – July 1794 -Jacobins -Robespierre -Terror, 17-93 -> 17-94 First test is on March 14 (most of nineteenth century will be discussed prior to the test) Two big deals: French Revolution (politics, law) and Industrial Revolution (economics) -both deal with social ideals *landmark instances in the last 200 years -paragraph stressing the importance of the French Revolution in terms of a larger landscape read from Professor Smith with reference to textbook: “France witnessed the birth of the most popular revolution that the world had ever known” -“popular sovereignty” “left European societies profoundly changed” -left class distinctions to chaos -no step from Enlightenment to French Revolution -most of the major social classes, groups were unhappy about one thing or another -Aristocracy (Dukes, Nobles, Counsel, Barons) were not happy about the idea of having to pay taxes, even though they controlled most of the land-wealth th in the 17 century, afraid of it? -Montesquieu skewed to make nobles believe they were losing their personal freedoms -“Upper-Middle Class” – people are lawyers, bankers, government officials, big investors are pretty well off with education of a weighty standard -> becoming politically conscious of their own lives, but still did not have political autonomy even when the initiatives of the government interfered with their own personal stocks in life -“Lower-Middle Class” – in Paris, sans culottes, urban craftsman and tradesman, urban wageworkers – did not want to wear the culottes, they wore trousers to be efficient and they were outraged at the price of daily goods (bread) and the economy (jobs) -Lyon, unemployment might have been around 50% and yet the price of daily goods 2x sans-culottes just starting to see themselves as political -Peasants, poor peasant probably needed about 15 acres of land to be farmed alongside poor family or you might have a trade/part-time job (weaving etc.) for a neighbor -agricultural markets are not in demand and thus are decreasing for small- time farmers who can no longer sell their goods -Americans had established what was considered a new government without kings, and the French saw this as the way out of corruption -the financial crisis occurs and the French feel the despair after helping the Americans become independent and no one would barter a trade with them -Louis XVI wanted this tax deduction from the higher classes as well, and yet these are the very people with more power -1788 – the aristocracy discusses the current state of affairs at the meeting of the Estates General -Estates General (14 15 ) was much like the English Parliament (House of Lords is the 1-2% of people upper and the House of Commons is everyone else) -Estates Generals 1420’s-30’s voted to give French a permanent land tax, after that the French kings didn’t have to come begging for more land taxes -1694 – much like the English Parliament until then -Estates General – 3 group attendees of the state’s societies (1. Pious People, 2. Secular Aristocrats (1-2%. Barons, etc.), 3. Well-to-do merchant and the peasants) -no proportions to represent social hierarchy and this is actually taken advantage of -voted by estate – 1 and 2 votes the same way and 3 peasants then had little power rd -Versailles, May, 1789 – assemble and the night of the meeting the 3 estate (merchants, bankers) protest the underrepresentation of their demands simply wanted a sure win and were patronized -June, Tennis Court Oath – modern students might find the importance debatable -However, these people claim they won’t leave until there is an official Constitution document drafted, revolutionary legal untouchables essentially -tennis court “assembly”: June 1789 – August 1792 ( “MODERATE” PHASE) -Bastille, July 14 1789 – Paris, Bastille mainly a prison and guns armory -Paris about 600,000 people -king is preparing a military force to guard this and yet the people witness this and go to the Bastille to protect the mob -Rebellion formed a municipal government, bloody and violent – and Mayor of Paris loses his head quite literally and then the victors parade his head around for awhile – a symbolic gesture -spark-like behavior, July 14th -Merriman “The Great Fear, July-August 1789” – peasants wanted to be heard so riots just keep happening, outbursts of outrage -peasants wanted to burn property and housing burning vacated areas -take away the wealth of the middle classes, make them leave, etc. most looking towards the records to burn -no back-up files -many of these people started to flee to Austria, Russia, borderlands -Women of Paris October 1789 – lower-class housewives, go into the grounds of Versailles- Louis XIV and Marie are brought back to Paris – forced to leave Versailles -morality rules: women are mad about $ -control of food and bread prices were somehow considered to be fixed … clearly not many people understood economics at the time -Moderate-phase dominated by upper-middle class, clearly peasants are too revolutionary and thus the middle class in the Estates Assembly initiated laws about the end of legal feudalism without regard to choice -legal demand for taxation ends? Obviously this will have to go somewhere but it symbolizes the end of the Middle Ages -move towards legal equality – Declarations of Man 1789 -> property, speech, press, religion, due process, unbiased treatment -applies to all men & not women (property, leadership, not politically literate enough to make sense) and in Europe too, concept: political equality makes men dissimilar from women? -Civil Constitution of the Clergy – the assembly desires secular right over Catholic Church in France (Voltaire, dead in 1788, did not necessarily follow the support of this church) ->* all priests, bishops, elected by man’s vote and to be paid with state pension, swear allegiance to the newly formed state, and about ½ refused to appease and started a new counter revolution -tried to break the Roman papal power, which didn’t hold much weight at this point in governments anymore anyways -Catholic Church great lands are seized for state use, $$$ to build revenue for governmental budget, sold in chunks -Written Constitution of France is devised in 1791 -sets up the rules for electing assembly members is restricted to “active citizens”, property to vote (about ½ of all men!) [in England, the right to vote is about (15-20%)] -had to still be suuuuuuuuuper wealthy to be voted for, to continue the dominance of the upper-class, and also France is a mixed or limited monarchy -Louis XVI sort of appeasing too -Enclosure – ordinary farmers forced to leave for a larger-scale agricultural functioning to feed all the communities, however, French peasants don’t particularly like this road (not British!) -Le Chapelier Law 1791 - - any guilds are outlawed without a proper representation and replaced with a Laisez-Faire type of way -August 1792 – July 1794 – Considered to be the “RADICAL PHASE” Reasoning behind: 1. Commoners aren’t pleased and the economy is stressful and confusing to where the demand can reliably go without a proportional wage increase (maybe 50%+ being spend on necessities) 2. almost no input even heard in the assembly -threat of invasion – Austria declares war on French, French armies are not stable enough to functions, as well the aristocracy that typically runs this is nearly gone -lower-classes, sans-culottes – declare French a revolutionary utopian barrack -> all the way to the nineteenth century *the example -Louis XVI and Marie tried to sneak out to Paris, in disguise – as peasants -> Rhine River near Germany, try to get away and almost make it until the peasants seize them -leadership in the assembly is passing isn’t radical Jacobins – claim to be representatives of the commoners origin of assembly hall divided: Left Wing: Right Wing: Jacobins and peeps Conservatives -call for a new election – about a thousand are put to death -parachuted court – found guilty, brought out to street, found to be guilty, and killed –madness! -the war effort at the end of 1792 is nearly began about – push across Rhine to Holland, Austria, Spain-September Massacres by the peasants in France – 1792, France is a Republic, publically guillotined in 1793 – no opposing opponents to rally against but is still considered to be -peasant armies, willing to die fighting as the -Jacobins splitting and the Mountains form -Robespierre – lawyer, threatened from within threatened from without -“Committee of Public Safety” gather anyone who is a threat to order in the Republic -Terror, 1793- 1794, anyone peasants, lawyers, dead -Terror seems to be quite successful – bankers, lawyers, merchants, philosophes – destroys generations and creates instability without real logical forethought -1794 the Jacobins abolish slavery in Haiti and places like that - > does not last ESP. after Napoleon -1804 – Haiti becomes a Black Republic -Terror – Jacobins, reason historians end this in 1799 – Napoleon seizes power Paige DeWitt-Holub February 10 th -E. Burke (1729-97) -Reflection on the Revolution in France, 1790 -Organic Analogy -T. Paine (1737-1809) -Right of Man, 1791 -War on the 1 Coalition (1793-97) nd -War of 2 Coalition, 1798-1802 -Battle of the Nile, 1798 -Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) -Demagogue -Constitution of 1799 -“Career open to talent” -Concordat of 1801 -Code Napoleon Uniformity Individualism -Emperor, December 2 , 1804 -Trafalgar, Oct. 1805 -Continental System, 1806 -Spain, 1808-13 -War of 1812 -Russia, 1812 -Waterloo, 1815 -St. Helena recap: Robespierre – end of the radical part of the French Revolution reaction to the French Revolution: Edmund Burke – British/ Welsh response in 1790, to the Revolutith in France, is sometime referred to as the “father of contemporary (19 century) conservatisms” launches an attack on the ideas of the French revolution, his critique consists of a theory of a “module of gradual change”, where this society is like a microcosm that takes a very long time for it to alter something on a large-scale, change has to be gradual, unlike the entire French Revolution “The liberties of men are not some kinds of abstract rights as members of a human race, but rather liberties are special, historically acquired privileges.” – Burke, historically = over a long period of history -equality is a fantasy of unrealistic endeavors to Burke -did not agree with the ideal of people within the people’s interest believed th th that they needed a better leader within the 18 and 19 century -> follows a more modern standard of political “corruption” today, elections, etc. -for Burke, social hierarchy is the sign of a healthy system because not every person is a reliable person – reoccurring theories throughout the new century -Thomas Paine, born in Norfolk, England (about 100 miles from London), 1774 emigrates from England to Pennsylvania -not agreeing with taking away liberty and equality, considers all of us, even those within the bloodline royalty, are simply socially constructed cover-ups on the past of robbers, etc. -wants to put philanthropy towards, children, and their education, education, the elderly -modern question: why don’t the presidents say they are going to support social security? - “The Rights of Man” by Thomas Paine, doesn’t have much acclaim until about 1820 – 2 ndgen. working class English families are inspired -The French Revolution continues until the end of the 1790’s, political upheaval By August of 1792, the French were at war with Austria and Prussia, Russia not involved – called the “War of the First Coalition” -1793 – French armies had overwhelmed Belgium and near Germany and the Rhine, and even arrogantly into Spain -the end of 1793, the French government institutes a military draft, as those French people see themselves as citizens -France had an army about 7050, Spain had not much -by 1795, France overran Italy, Napoleon becomes more distinguished -by 1796, the only player still standing is Britain, as everyone else had been beat up -War of 2 ndCoalition, 1798-1802 : -1798-99 – French invade Egypt, trying to damage the Egyptian colony -Napoleon’s ambition resembles Alexander the Great, the British army crushes the French navy at the Battle of the Nile, 1798 -Napoleon returns to France 9/10 November, 1789 in Paris, he has no major opposition and that only makes him stronger, Napoleon skilled in political maneuvering -“Demagogue” – knows how to craft words out of many sides for interests of many factions while being above arguments, uses the French Revolution as a platform in which he is the Guardian of the French and their goals -Rises to power symbolic even more with military standing, poor aristocrats from the island o Corsica (belongs to Italian dynasty until it is sold to a Frenchman) -uses fear to gain trust -peasants have things looking up for them at the turn of the 19 century and did not have to listen to the royal demands of blood aristocracy any longer, invited to enjoy their freedom in the aftermath and consider Napoleon to be a “democratically“ elected leader -people had open speech of press, CAREERS OPEN TO TALENT – achievement not heredity! – middle class is pretty conservative now and do not feel the need to push the boundaries any more beyond conservatisms in France -French 1-2% in central Europe, etc… Napoleon has about 100,000 come back to return to a less-circumstantially privileged lives – still can work hard with education, military -Concordat – the Roman Catholic Church of Rome – will not get lands that had been taken as part of the Revolution as they were sold, clergymen are still state-appointed, YET Rome still has a say in the manner in which clergymen perform <- lessens the sting of the enemy -Code Napoleon: 1810, origins even older, 1. Uniformity – laws are universal in France now -France in 1800 create a finished product and your goal is to send this item to Marseilles, % taxes by the area as by area is not feasible, also protects growing property middle class – early 19 , Germany later 1707- Act of Union, brought England and Scotland together – duty-free zone, -education, self-achieved wealth, -LE CHAPELIER LAW, 1791 is identically reassessed in Napoleon’s Napoleonic Code, also no room for the rights of ladies **misogyny seemed important at the time for domestic functionality -tax money mostly goes to central state now, in Versailles, budgeting for war only slightly -**Considered one of the “Last Enlightenment Kings/Despot” 2. Individualism – -1799, Napoleon published an updated constitution where ANY man above a certain age can vote, there’s assembly cannot publish legal documents, always having to vote from Napoleons select few of the draw -December 2 , 1804 – Napoleon takes on the name Emperor, &new emperor of Rome?, for awhile people were content and happy with this “reaffirming” move -Battle of the Nile – wants to cross the channel and invade Britain, the British navy (1793) had “16,000 sailors and admirals” , (1802) 135,000 military men -France did also have a large fleet and for awhile even joined Spain, but it became an issue when the aristocracy could not afford this -Treaty of Trafalgar, captain of British fleet Lord Nelson -Continental System of 1806, the original plan had been to block England’s harbor -> French blockade of the harbors to deny French from trading “internally” in Europe -not long before the merchants on the other side become so frustrated that the efforts of the French Revolution are exhausted and ridiculed -Britain economy dented, U.S. exports, South America -Spain, 1808-13, by 1808 the Spanish people are revolting against Napoleon’s rule, 120,000 troops to control the issues in Spain, yet Britain also is supported a bit by the British for the Bay of Biscay, guerilla warfare -War of 1812 – British vs. U.S. emerging problems with “Re-colonizers from London”, sail up the Potomac, defeated in New Orleans by Andrew Jackson -Napoleon still controls continental Europe all the way out to Poland -Russians in 1812 wanted to back out of the continental political system, constant French peasants threat looming over -some French (30hr forced march, all bullets gone, more French troops show up) June, the Grand Army (600,000+ men), big battle outside of Moscow -Napoleon wanted the Russians to put up a fight, never fight fair, historical climatologists say this was one of the worst winters in Moscow -Russians set Napoleon’s winter army shelter in January, Russian army is hard to find -Russian army retreats at the sight of the “grand’ army, when French army gets back around early spring …. 600,000 men before 40,000 men 270,000 dead, 200,000 dead -eastern European country found large hunks of French soldiers from this time later on by looking at the buttons they were able to figure out who they were representing when they froze to death -Napoleon is captured and sent to exile in the island of Alba -1815 Battle of Waterloo in modern-day Belgium, Napoleon is beaten at his own game, combined armies make Napoleon fight before he’s ready. -Sent into exile at the Island of St. Helena, nothing around the ocean, mythology attached to Napoleon’s death and that he had been poisoned? Since he’s a god, these two archaeologists found Arsenic? except that was found everywhere -Europe put back together with a reconstruction …
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