Book notes for CH 17
Book notes for CH 17 3050
Popular in Essential Elements of Biochemistry
Popular in Biochemistry
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luke Holden on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Srikripa Chandrasekaran in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Essential Elements of Biochemistry in Biochemistry at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Ch 17 Notes 171 DNA 1 2 Strands of polydoexynucleotide 2 Each nucleotide monomer has a b C d Nitrogenous base Deoxyribes Phosphate Joined by 3 5 phosphodiester bonds 3 Antiparallel a b C Adenine I Thimine Guaninel Cytosine Why does it form a spiral i Each base pair is at an angle 4 Stability a Hydrophobic interactions i Purine and pyrimidine stacked on top of each other cause the structure to be overall nonpolar Also this decrease the interactions with water which increases the entropy of water This cause the molecule to stay together b Hydrogen bonds i These occur between the nitrogenous bases ii These cause an overall zippering effect c Base stacking i This is just like the strength that comes when you are packing something and then you make them perfectly align ii This creases a nice strong stack iii Bases do the same thing d Hydration i DNA binds to a lot of water ii Bases bind to about 18 19 different H20 molecules iii Phosphates bind to about 6 e Electrostatic Ionic i DNA is overall negatively charged ii Since this can bind water the overall molecule is protected 5 Mutation a Point mutations single base change b Transition deamination reactions or tautomerization i Purine for a purine or visa versa c Trans version pyrimidine is a substituted for a purine d Single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPS i More than 1 point mutation on a nucleotide e Silent Mutation when a point mutation occurs but no visible change occurs f Missenses base change occurs that causes an effect g Nonsense mutation that codes for early termination in polypeptides and then renders the protein unusable h Indels insertions or deletions i Indell occurs in factor other than three then a frame shift mutation happens ii Can cause strand slippage or misparing during meiosis i Inversion when fragment is ipped j Translocation fragment from one chromosome to the other k Gene duplication unequal crossing over and retro transposons cause duplication fragments 6 Causes of DNA Damage a Endogenous Spontaneous shift and tautoermization inside factor i Tautormic shift ketone and enol Amino and Imino configuration ii No stress on the 3 d structure iii However it can cause serious problems during replication iv Depuration when a glycositic bond between purine and sugar is cleaved 1 Causes point mutations b Exogenous radiationoutside factors i Xenobiotics 1 Base analog fake base that looks a lot like the real ones so much that the base is inserted into the real ones 2 Alkylating agents electrophiles that attack unshared electrons adding alkyl groups 3 Nonalkylating agents mess up DNA structure 4 Intercalating agents insert between bases 7 The genetic material a Fred Griffith This was the mouse guy lil lIglh Hllazliu Eli39lml Strum IleanELili39lei HUI Ell Hmm uml Hutu I My Ii ri HIMiii Hanatillu Elwin Killed HIIHa h39l i HE39IHH it i in Mulls Lima Mouse Hues 39a 1LIia n gr MilHm Elissa 1 ii POINT HE DISCOVERED TRANSFORMATION not accepted at first b Avery and McLeod Tm t ampla win Bil ashy Mu FIFE 39 Rhl i quotattains In WIMPus Edgar smaln ham ssnain iad mg a V n r E and R quotiquot V l V alns HaulMil mum F39IWEEEE a lm R haith 39 N and I39lhnr HEY 39 Vi 39 l V In HFlim Lnuin q A 3 33 Iii 5 Strain I I 7 HI 3 if mmn t imi I Llpm quotl js 1435 E and R l 3 walrus f al h EEE va 7 v y g and R l its mlns amiang Emma Hawaiiah all gramme m muma t mm minht nmfnrmd E mm ham15 1 ii They discovered that DNA was the transforming agent C Hershey and Chase l Mail rm l mgtiw ly hanging in in hel1lquotll li ll39 ii h liiru a film i Mayanng Elm Humeml whygag agapa rrmz punyH Ink3mm so Mmi mln F l mr In ima hatrrrin Endi rl i H uidjun um hamarias TIErim n milm l Lina millm uid I ma tiiuuiu iui uz llII lhnEInE39ml enlln i E I ETI II FIEI E rllll l39la l IJLF39I I l 39l I i39 391 DEII ELIlimit rmwlmn1n illHm 7 F Ra aaeniiw 7 in a v j EnsFl EmaME r M Vi r ij mn Ill 4F nahgrill FImuhlmicnimiw Emmrlum u l 39 quot i Pllama fig ii DNA Iiiiii 39Ii NH Pll39ll i 39lll ini ir ll 39rl will I39IEIIEIIIEHiEIIwIi nul mr Ema quotF39iElII39E t 3n 39lhllnurm 5quoter wim39i39 r bnimi am iphlgilglp I rusm EWFFQ n Fl39ll lli lil39u ll39 r BillWI lint mumt EDI TH39II I nga l39il ilmill ili w z i Eil39ljilll TEE nilI39 l irli r IquotIITII I EmiliaIi Fm FlEli l nailHi Hutir l iijl39i lIEIiElIEI wFIiiF Ti Erikiii Er39 l l i EilII39n ililil 39HL393Iilll El illILLEIJJI J I IIIII l iail Iall lIi5JIi I l la Huiquin lI Ll rin Luna ii DNA was the one being transformed and is the genetic material of the Virus d Watson and Crick i Needed 5 things for DNA 1 Structure and dimensions of deoxyribose N Base and phosphate 11 Ratio of A T and G C Chargaff s Rule X Ray diffraction by Roseland Franklin Diameter and pitch of the heliX from Wilkins DNA could be in a helical formation 959 8 Variations of DNA a B DNA normal structure we are used too i The DNA can change because the deoxy is exible and the glycosotic linkages can rotate b A DNA Due to the drop in water molecules around the DNA C Z DNA Zigzag i Slimmer than B DNA ii Left handed heliX iii Methylation and negative supercoiling stabilizes 9 DNA Supercoiling a Packaging b 2 types of negative supercoiling i Toriodal shape ii Interwound iii Stores energy tension Topoisomerase relieves stress by cutting the DNA allowing the stress to leave Twisted against under wound Twisted with over wound THINK OF IT KIND ONE LIKE A PHONE CORD LIKE THE ONE IN THE GOOD OLD DAYS THAT WAS TTACHED TO THE PHONE 10 Prokaryotes a Nucleoid circular supercoiled DNA with protein backbone i DNA attached to protein core ii Other structure proteins put DNA in its place 1 1 Eukaryotes a Chromatin linear chromosome with complexes histones b Histones wrap around DNA because DNA is overall negatively charged c 8 histones nucleosome d Beads on a stringBead l nucleosome i Histonefold common across all four classes of histones 1 25 40 amino acids long that pertrude form the DNA 2 These hold the DNA to itself like little arms ii Nucleosome l H3H4llH32H42H2A2H2B2 Nucleosome I 2 H1 this is the clip that holds the DNA to the beginning of the nucleosome so the DNA does not become undone during replication e While in replication i Heterochromatin highly condensed DNA that it is metaphase before the cell enters anaphase and divides ii Euchromatin the intermediate relaxed DNA f Organelle DNA chloroplasts and mitochondrion i Reproduce by binary fission ii Code for their own stuff 12 Genome Structure a Prokaryotic genomes i Size small ii Coding capacity no room for useless DNA unlike eukaryotic r on iii Gene eXpression operons systems that mass produce expression iV Plasmids recombinant possible b Eukaryotic Genomes i Size larger HOWEVER NOT MORE COMPLEX LOTS OF EXTRA NO RELPICATED DNA LIKE TELOMERES1 ii Coding capacity 15 of proteins are coded for human genome iii Coding continuity introns and exons 1 Intergonic sequences those that don t code for gene products 2 Tandem Repeats multiple copies of DNA side by side a Most commonly in satellite DNA i Centromeres and telomeres b Mini and micro satellites used for markers 172 RNA 1 Structural Differences a 2 OH group I More reactive b U for T c Single stranded d Can coil back on itself to form secondary structures e CHARGAFF S RULE DOES NOT WORK HERE 2 Types of RNA a tRNA transport AA to ribosome i 75 nt long ii AA to tRNA by amino acyl tRNA synthases iii Extra arms and loops used to align the tRNA on the ribosome iV Can be classified by the variable loop b rRNA i most abundant ii components of ribosomes 1 Prokaryotes a Large Subunit 50s b Small Subunit 30s c Altogether 70s 2 Eukaryotes a Large Subunit 6O s b Small Subunit 4O s c mRNA messenger RNA i carrier of genetic from DNA to protein n codons iii Open reading frame ORF the area between the start and stop codon iV In prokaryotes polycistronic Many proteins on 1 strip V Eukaryotes monocistronic Vi Cistron protein coding segment on RNA
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