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Molecular Genetics

by: Asia Glenn

Molecular Genetics BIO 100

Asia Glenn
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These are notes from lecture
Intro to Biology
Jack Waber
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asia Glenn on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 100 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Jack Waber in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
Molecular Genetics The study of the precise chemical details of how genetic systems work. Chemical Nature of Genetic Material b Hereditary “chemical” is a large molecule known as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. b DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. Nucleotide Structure­General DNA Nucleotides b Adenine                                 b  Thymine b  Guanine                                       b  Cytosine b b DNA: Hereditary Biochemical b Must be capable of self­replication b Must be responsible for ALL genetically controlled phenotypic characteristics.              DNA Replication               b DNA polymerase b Template Strand b New Strand b Base Pairing b Two identical double stranded molecules DNA Replication: Summary b Each parental strand acts as a template for the DIRECTED synthesis of a new  complementary strand with a nucleotide sequence directed by the sequence in the  parental strand. When completed, there are two identical double stranded molecules. DNA Replication Summary (cont..) b Synthesis reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes referred to as DNA polymerase b “Normal” error rate = 1/100,000,000 Phenotypic Traits b DNA is clearly  the “master molecule”. b DNA is not directly responsible for the appearance of phenotypic characteristics. b Proteins (enzymes) ARE responsible the appearance of “traits”. b DNA has the information; proteins cause it to be expressed. b The link between the two is RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). RNA/DNA DNA Directed RNA Synthesis:Transcription b Information in DNA is “transcribed” onto RNA. b The RNA is then transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where it will  have a specific function depending on type.   Transcription b DNA Template b RNA Polymerase b RNA Nucleotides b U “replaces” T b RNA molecule with complementary sequence Types of RNA b Messenger RNA (mRNA): carries the specific instructions on “how to construct”  protein from the appropriate amino acids. b Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): a “structural” RNA used to construct ribosomes. b Transfer RNA (t­RNA): a “family” of RNAs that transport amino acids to the  ribosome for incorporation into protein. How does it work? b Information in DNA is Transcribed on to Messanger RNA. b The information in mRNA is Translated in to Protein Translation: RNA Directed Protein Synthesis b Requires a code to translate nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences. b Code must be large enough to accommodate all 20 amino acids needed to make  biological proteins. b Only four possible nucleotides. Genetic Code t­RNA Stages of Translation b Initiation b Elongation b Termination Translation: Initiation Translation: Elongation Translation: Termination Summary of Protein Synthesis Regulation of Gene Expressions b All genetic information is not constantly transcribed and then translated. b Rather, it is “expressed” on a selective basis in a tightly regulated fashion; a major  undertaking. b Human: 100 Trillion cells controlled by approximately 30,000 genes. b Some genes code for REGULATORY PROTEINS, whose function is controlling the  expression of other genes. Regulatory Malfunction: Cancer b Cancer = uncontrolled mitosis b Transformation of normal cell into malignant cell may be caused by “turning on of  Oncogene(s)”. b Oncogenes are normal part of human genome.  Active during development, then  turned off. b Abnormal activation caused by: Radiation, Carcinogenic Chemicals, Viral alteration  of DNA. b Lung Cancer: VERY rare in non­smokers, abnormally high in smokers.


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