GOV 312L Week 4: "Marshall Plan" documentary + Lecture 5
GOV 312L Week 4: "Marshall Plan" documentary + Lecture 5 GOV 312L
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Toepel on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GOV 312L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Barany in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Issues and Policies in American Government in Political Science at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
America and the Cold War Documentary: “The Marshall Plan” Monday, 2/8 ▯ “The Marshall Plan” documentary notes: during this time, Italy is extremely poor and could be subject to communism takeover 1941 May Day in Moscow – the Red Army is extremely powerful U.S. fears that domestic communists will gain power in western Europe, which would be a huge opportunity for the Soviets to take over The financial crisis in the U.K. causes them to end their aid to Greece and Turkey – simply cannot afford it anymore Truman decides it is time to help other countries maintain their freedom with military and economic aid – proposes $400 million dollars in aid Truman understood the issues (solutions) of the war very clearly: it was freedom v. tyranny o In order to combat tyranny, the U.S. must keep weakening countries strong via financial aid Russians still kept up their “warm hospitality” during negotiations, but they went no where o The Soviet Union was stalling for time, waiting for greater public unrest to try to achieve their goals first, rather than using the power of the Red Army At the heart of the Europe problem was the question of a defeated Europe o U.S. recognizes that they need Germany back on its feet, and to do so must act quickly o Propose the “Europe Rescue Plan” Marshall recognized the U.S.’s strength, and the need for other western countries to be strong as well He proposed American involvement in European Reconstruction o American aid would be available for all European countries, including the U.S.S.R. Stalin, however, is suspicious of the Truman Doctrine + the Marshall Plan – contrasting documents: one says the U.S. must eradicate communism and help all countries who are also trying to combat communist powers, the other says the U.S. will provide aid and support to any European country in need Stalin doesn’t think that the U.S. is genuinely trying to help them o Uses spies in London to pass documents to the Soviets o Gives him access to everything Stalin eventually receives documents that confirm that the U.S. is not really trying to support them results in the Soviets pulling out of negotiations o Says the U.S. was dividing Europe into two hostile camps In 1947, 16 nations sign up for the Marshall Plan, and the western alliance begins to take shape The U.S.S.R. sees the Marshall Plan as the U.S.’s way of gaining influence over the Marshall countries o Stalin tells the communists in the West to start seizing power Soviet Union creates their own vessel for economic aid to communist countries: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (“Comecon”) o Wanted to prevent countries in the sphere of influence from accepting U.S. help In Czechoslovakia, U.S.S.R. takes over the police, government, etc. of Prague o 2 weeks after the takeover, Jan Masaryk “falls” from his apartment window o his funeral symbolizes the end of a free Czechoslovakia The Prague takeover shocks Washington D.C. o Causes even the strongest isolationists to recognize the U.S.S.R. advancement o Helps to approve Marshall Plan legislation Food and fertilizers are the first shipments sent to Marshall countries, followed by machines for agricultural efficiency Marshall Plan also fueled the post-war economy of the U.S., too – Marshall money went straight back into the U.S. industry o Would’ve cost the U.S. more money had that not installed the Plan Greece was absolutely devastated by the Nazis + their own civil war Used $700 million dollars of Marshall Plan money in 4 years Range of projects that affected every sector of the economy o The U.S. was said to have fed, fueled, and clothed the Greek nation Major problem was the destruction of farm animals during the war o Solution: U.S. imported Missouri mules Although the mules were much larger than the local animals, more aggressive, and harder to get under control, they were much more efficient and useful for plowing France 1947: factory strikes cause months of disruption 3 million workers took to the streets – they thought they were underpaid and overworked the U.S. makes it clear that before France will be given Marshall aid, they must get their people under control eventually, disruption ends and $2.7 billion dollars flows into France ▯ Tito, the leader of Yugoslavia, has an uneasily alliance with Stalin Tito is acquiring a more independent position than Stalin would like 1948 split between Yugoslavia and the U.S.S.R.: Tito is expelled from Comecon o results in Tito requesting U.S. help 1950: Yugoslavia makes an agreement with the U.S. government, and emerges from behind the Iron Curtain o $150 million aid is sent to them ▯ Clearly, the U.S. has a vital stake in Europe’s recovery It would have cost them much more than the Marshall Plan had most European countries not recovered ▯ Italy, 1948: Communism dominates the left wing popular front In the first general election, it appears the Communist Party will be victorious Italians feared a communist victory 10 million letters were written (by Italian family members who had immigrated to the U.S.) to dissuade their families from voting for the communist leaders o family is very important in Italy, and these letters were very effective The CIA decided they needed even more influence however – decided to develop a covert action program o But did they have the legal authority to do so? Loophole: if the president of the National Security Council is the President of the United States, then yes The U.S. then began to deliver bags of money to certain candidates so they could have the funds to distribute flyers and brochures, host events, etc. The Church also began a campaign of their own o Pope Pius the 12 was concerned about communist doctrine, as it was very antireligious The Church made very effective election posters, and projected election films at night in rural areas of Italy – reached a vast number of people o People were very interested and influenced by these films because they began to recognize that the “war against communism was a holy war” The Vatican publicly opposed communism as well, and excommunicated members of the Communist Party, and friends of members Pope Pius the 12 : “You’re either for Christ, or against Christ” o Thought it was the duty of the pope to protect people from atheists and therefore, communists 1948 Italian polls: Christian democrat victory o devastating to Italian communists and supporters o first time that the Christian Democratic Party had an absolute majority in Parliament there is now a flood of Marshall aid sent to Italy, including machinery re-equipment for Fiat Motor Company ▯ The Marshall plan demonstrated the U.S. desire to secure Europe’s future American ideas were imposed on Europe in a “be like us” way (which generated some suspicion) U.S. wanted to build a European consumer society tied to U.S. trade and capital For the next 40 years, the Eastern Socialist block would eye the West with jealousy ▯ Title slide: America and the Cold War, Lecture 5 ▯ ▯ Slide 2: Kennan’s Failures His ideas don’t take hold in the State Department – there is not uniform agreement about the best way to proceed Unfortunately, his ideas don’t produce results: o China goes communist (HUGE prize for communist powers) o North Korea is lost to communists (great loss of potential for U.S. influence and trade) o The expansion of communism is NOT halted, and Stalinism is NOT contained ▯ ▯ Slide 3: Paul H. Nitze Kennan’s successor at PPS/State Dept. Drafts a new document: NSC-68/2 o Initially classified but later made public Purpose: to systematize containment and make its objectives work o More logical than Kennan’s particularism, but lost Kennan’s nuance o More general, systemized view of containment No major differences between Nitze & Kennan – the conception of national interest is similar in both documents o A slow evolution of foreign policy, not a total overhaul ▯ ▯ Slide 4: NSC-68: Systematizing Containment How did it improve upon the Cold War? Recognized that particularism/defending only the STRONG POINTS is no longer sufficient o A more universalistic approach is adopted More emphasis on PERIMETER DEFENSE: all points on the perimeter are of equal importance o The U.S. needs to defend and give attention to all eruptions of communism in all places INCREASED defense expenditures o More than tripled o Key practical consequence of the new policy when confronted with a threat, ANYTHING is fair game o including nuclear weapons and the new hydrogen bomb much MORE PESSIMISTIC in its judgment of the USSR than Kennan o no longer optimistic about figuring out the USSR’s motives/plans o there was a sense that the U.S. should expect the worst – including nuclear war derived its view of US interests from its PERCEPTION of Soviet threat DISCOUNTED DIPLOMACY and negotiations o Because the U.S. felt they couldn’t figure out what the Soviets wanted anyways, they thought there was no reason for diplomatic relations anymore o This was a bad, bad idea Aims (and pessimism) are furthered by the Korean War ▯ ▯ Slide 5: NSC-68: Problems NSC-68 proceeds from Kennan’s assumptions but arrives at different conclusions nd Said little about Kennan’s 2 stage (the exploiting of tensions in the international communist movement) o Ex: Kennan talked about sowing rifts within the Soviet movement (i.e. with Yugoslavia), which resulted in an odd alliance with Yugoslavia, despite it being a communist state o With NSC-68, this strategy is thrown out the window – every communist state is now a threat, no matter how harmless Assumed continued Soviet control of Eastern Europe Discounting negotiations, NSC-68 argued that change would take place if the USSR itself changed o But throwing out negotiations doesn’t allow for continued relationships with the next Soviet ruler, Khrushchev, after Stalin’s eventual death A deeply flawed document ▯ ▯ Slide 6: Problems with NSC-68 The measures it recommends undercut the goals it was trying to achieve 1. The military build-up might have enhanced U.S. security if U.S. interests remained stable, but the document expanded them 2. Fragmentation in the communist world might be a desirable objective, BUT treating communists everywhere as equally dangerous was not the way to achieve it it’s not wise to treat all communist countries the same i.e. who cares about Laos?! Small communist country, extremely poor, and no threat to the U.S. ▯ ▯ Slide 7: NSC-68: Main Objective The whole point of the document was the shake up the bureaucracy, Congress, and the general public into supporting more vigorous action ▯ ▯ Slide 8: The Korean War June 25, 1950 – July 27, 1953 North Korea, China, & the Soviet Union vs. South Korea, USA, & the United Nations millions (!) wounded and killed, including over 3.5 million civilians 54,246 Americans killed, 7,500 still unaccounted for o worst war fought for the U.S. ▯ ▯ Slide 9: (pictures) ▯ ▯ Slides 10-12: NSC-68 and the Korean War Aims of NSC-68 are furthered by the Korean War 1. Because North Korea was a proxy state of the U.S.S.R., North Korean invasion of South Korea could not take place without Soviet authorization 2. North Korean attack confirmed American assumption that the Soviet Union might well resort to fight wars by proxy, even in the face of US nuclear superiority 3. Fighting in Korea reinforced the argument that existing US forces were inadequate, and nuclear weapons alone will not deter limited aggression i. i.e. just because the U.S. had nuclear weapons did not mean everyone everywhere would stop fighting ▯ ▯ Slide 13: The Immediate Impact U.S. strategy in Korea is consistent with the spirit of NSC-68 The defense budgets drastically increased o From $13 billion to $50 billlion a year, to be paid for by a large tax increase Also a huge growth in industrial military complex ▯ ▯ Slide 14: Elements of NSC-68 1. Presumption that the Western allies + Japan were weak o This resulted in a rearmament of European countries, including Germany and Japan 2. Fear that the coordinated short-term actions of adversaries were too dangerous to wait for inevitable strains to develop between them 3. Conviction that strengthening alliances should precede efforts to resolve differences with adversaries o More emphasis on alliances and close relationships o Formalized relation with Oceania (ANZUS): Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. ▯ ▯ Slide 15: In U.S. Domestic Politics U.S. politics are becoming more right wing – everything is extreme Right wing Republicans charge that the Democrats (FDR and Truman) “sold out” Eastern European countries during wartime conferences o This was wrong however; the U.S. simply had no choice in the matter Slides 16-18: (pictures) ▯ Slide 19: Kersten Amendment Republicans call for a stronger stance against Communism Kersten Amendment (Oct. 1951) to Mutual Security Act: o MSA sent $100 million to form military groups working for liberation and supporting NATO o Aimed to support the liberation of countries still under Soviet domination, like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and East Germany o Moscow protests this at the UN, saying it is an interference in its domestic affairs The amendment is really a form of psychological warfare ▯ ▯ Slide 20: Opponents of Containment By 1952, there is widespread opposition to containment A policy of LIBERATION was put forth – more proactive mindset James Burnham’s influential book, Containment or Liberation (1953) o Supports the view that the key to the situation is not what happens but what can be MADE to happen in Eastern Europe o This becomes a major theme in U.S. foreign policy Most influential exponent of liberation: John Foster Dulles ▯ ▯ Slide 21: John Foster Dulles Long experience in foreign affairs Wanted dynamic use of ideas based on moral principles In 1952 submits to General Eisenhower a proposal that includes both liberation and the creation of a military deterrent, capable of MASSIVE RETALIATION In election campaign Eisenhower pays lip-service to liberation Eisenhower promises to end Korean War quickly ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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