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Lectures 5-8

by: Brady Hoyt

Lectures 5-8 EXSS 22000

Brady Hoyt
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Information on joints. Structural types of joints, functional types of joints, how they articulate, and other important information to know about joints in the body.
Jennifer McKeon
Class Notes
Kinesiology, Joints, articulation, synovial, structural, functional, synarthrosis, diarthrosis, fibrous, cartilaginous, Ligaments, intrinsic, extrinsic
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Hoyt on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 22000 at Ithaca College taught by Jennifer McKeon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
2/8/2016  Arthrology- the study of joints  Articulation-multiple things touching (joints)  Points of contact between: o Bones o Cartilage and joints o Teeth and bones  Bony structure has a direct impact on the function of each joint  What do joints do? o Joints allow movement o The shape of the joints helps limit (or not limit) movement (Static Restraint) o Bear and absorb body weight force  Structural Classification o Fibrous  Bones held together by fibrous connective tissue  No joint capsule exist o Cartilaginous  Bones held together tightly connected by cartilage o Synovial  Space between articulating bones  Potential loss or inflammation creating problems  Functional Classification o Synarthrosis  Without a joint  Immoveable o Amphiarthrosis  Slightly moveable o Diarthrosis  Freely moveable  Fibrous Joints o Suture  Less fibrous connective tissue-tighter fit  ex.) intercranial or interfacial o Gomphosis  “to bolt together”  ex.) tooth socket with periodontal ligament o Amphiarthrosis  Syndesmosis  Ligaments or interosseous membrane connect  Ex.) proximal and distal tibiofibular joints  Cartilaginous Joints o Synchondrosis  Connecting material is  ex.) 1st rib o Amphiarthroses  Broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage  Ex.) pubic synthesis  SYNOVIAL AND DIARTHROSIS ARE THE SAME (THEY ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE) SYNOVIAL IS STRUCTURE AND DIARTHROSIS IS FUNCTION  Synovial Joints o Are freely moveable (active muscular control) o Have 4 major parts:  Joint capsule (outer layer)  fibrous  dense irregular connective tissue that prevents dislocation but allows for movement  parallel bundles of these fibers form ligaments  Synovial Membrane (inner layer)  secretes synovial fluid which fills cavity  Synovial Fluid  Nourishes and lubricates joint and joint structures  Articular Cartilage (Hyaline Cartilage)  We’ll talk about this all on it’s own 2/10/16  Uniaxial-1 axis of rotation o Hinge o Pivot  Biaxial-2 axes of rotation o condyloid/ellipsoid o saddle  Triaxial-3axes of rotation o ball and socket  Nonaxial-No axis of rotation (it doesn’t rotate, but it does move) o Gliding Uniaxial  Hinge o Convex section into concave section o Flexion/Extension only  Ex.) elbow  Pivot o Bones move around longitudinal axis o Rounded process articulating with sleeve or ring o Rotational movement  Ex.) proximal radioulnar or atlantoaxial joint Biaxial  Condyloid/Ellipsoid o oval shaped body fits into an elliptical cavity  ex.) metacarpophalangeal  ex.) radiocarpal  Saddle o Modified condyloid, provides more movement  ex.) thumb or patellofemoral Triaxial  Ball and socket o Allows for greatest movement  ex.) shoulder (mobility with little stability)  ex.) Hip (mobility with lots of stability) Nonaxial  Gliding o side to side and back/forth movements o no rotation allowed  ex.) intercarpals 2/12/16  What is so important about articular cartilage? ←*MUY IMPORTANTE* o reduce friction o disperse forces o improves congruent articulation between bones Components of Articular Cartilage Cellular Extracellular Matrix  Chondrocytes Proteoglycans o Produce and maintain Water the extracellular matrix Collagen Fibers Collagen Fiber Arrangement & Breakdown  Collagen Fiber arrangement o biomechanical function  Erosion of the “keystone” (fibrillation) o eventual breakdown of collagen structure o water content is unbalanced


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