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BIO_SC 3400 - 01
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Popular in Kinesiology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Hoyt on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 22000 at Ithaca College taught by Jennifer McKeon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
2/8/2016 Arthrology- the study of joints Articulation-multiple things touching (joints) Points of contact between: o Bones o Cartilage and joints o Teeth and bones Bony structure has a direct impact on the function of each joint What do joints do? o Joints allow movement o The shape of the joints helps limit (or not limit) movement (Static Restraint) o Bear and absorb body weight force Structural Classification o Fibrous Bones held together by fibrous connective tissue No joint capsule exist o Cartilaginous Bones held together tightly connected by cartilage o Synovial Space between articulating bones Potential loss or inflammation creating problems Functional Classification o Synarthrosis Without a joint Immoveable o Amphiarthrosis Slightly moveable o Diarthrosis Freely moveable Fibrous Joints o Suture Less fibrous connective tissue-tighter fit ex.) intercranial or interfacial o Gomphosis “to bolt together” ex.) tooth socket with periodontal ligament o Amphiarthrosis Syndesmosis Ligaments or interosseous membrane connect Ex.) proximal and distal tibiofibular joints Cartilaginous Joints o Synchondrosis Connecting material is ex.) 1st rib o Amphiarthroses Broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage Ex.) pubic synthesis SYNOVIAL AND DIARTHROSIS ARE THE SAME (THEY ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE) SYNOVIAL IS STRUCTURE AND DIARTHROSIS IS FUNCTION Synovial Joints o Are freely moveable (active muscular control) o Have 4 major parts: Joint capsule (outer layer) fibrous dense irregular connective tissue that prevents dislocation but allows for movement parallel bundles of these fibers form ligaments Synovial Membrane (inner layer) secretes synovial fluid which fills cavity Synovial Fluid Nourishes and lubricates joint and joint structures Articular Cartilage (Hyaline Cartilage) We’ll talk about this all on it’s own 2/10/16 Uniaxial-1 axis of rotation o Hinge o Pivot Biaxial-2 axes of rotation o condyloid/ellipsoid o saddle Triaxial-3axes of rotation o ball and socket Nonaxial-No axis of rotation (it doesn’t rotate, but it does move) o Gliding Uniaxial Hinge o Convex section into concave section o Flexion/Extension only Ex.) elbow Pivot o Bones move around longitudinal axis o Rounded process articulating with sleeve or ring o Rotational movement Ex.) proximal radioulnar or atlantoaxial joint Biaxial Condyloid/Ellipsoid o oval shaped body fits into an elliptical cavity ex.) metacarpophalangeal ex.) radiocarpal Saddle o Modified condyloid, provides more movement ex.) thumb or patellofemoral Triaxial Ball and socket o Allows for greatest movement ex.) shoulder (mobility with little stability) ex.) Hip (mobility with lots of stability) Nonaxial Gliding o side to side and back/forth movements o no rotation allowed ex.) intercarpals 2/12/16 What is so important about articular cartilage? ←*MUY IMPORTANTE* o reduce friction o disperse forces o improves congruent articulation between bones Components of Articular Cartilage Cellular Extracellular Matrix Chondrocytes Proteoglycans o Produce and maintain Water the extracellular matrix Collagen Fibers Collagen Fiber Arrangement & Breakdown Collagen Fiber arrangement o biomechanical function Erosion of the “keystone” (fibrillation) o eventual breakdown of collagen structure o water content is unbalanced
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