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Human Development Week 2 Notes

by: Brooke Hutto

Human Development Week 2 Notes HD 101

Brooke Hutto
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

Week 2 Notes covering all information regarding pregnancy and birthing
Intro to Human Development
Jason Scofield
Class Notes
Pregnancy. Birthing. Week 2.
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Hutto on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Scofield in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
HD 101 - Notes 2/10/16 Pregnancy: Sex Cells - Ovum (i.e., egg) - Female sex cell (gamete) - Produced in ovaries - 1-2 million (produced during prenatal development) - 400k survive to puberty (released to menopause) - Released every 28 days (menstrual cycle) - Mid-cycle (14 days before menstruation) - Ovulation - Migrates through fallopian tubes to uterus - Estrogen and progesterone prepare uterine lining - Unfertilized eggs are shed with lining - In female production (quality matters over quantity) - Sperm - Male sex cell (gamete) - Produced in testicles.. shortly after conception both male and female immediately start producing female anatomy, only after the Y chromosome triggers a shift is the male anatomy produced - 300-400 million sperm produced daily more a day than females make in a lifetime - From puberty on - 40-60% defective - Released into urethra - Combine with seminal fluid — create substance - Live in 2-6 days outside of the body - Pass through cervix and uterus then to fallopian tube — in most cases their muscle contractions that thrust sperm forward throughout process - Only 500 survive to reach egg for fertilization - Egg selects the sperm and sends an acidic that kills the remaining sperm - Head of sperm responsible for carrying chromosomes - Fertilization: Sperm travels through cervix into uterus searching for egg - small receptors on the sperm have to match perfectly with receptors on the egg, this leads to the egg producing small whole to extract the only needed chromosomes and leaves the remaining sperm - 23 chromosomes in the egg - In Vitro Fertilization (1978) - “test tube baby” - Egg fertilization externally - Treatment for infertility - Egg implanted on uterus - Artificial Insemination (‘80s) - Sperm Donor (frozen then thawed) - Treatment for infertility - Sperm injected into cervix Pregnancy Test - Detects hormone that suppresses menstrual cycle - Found in urine sample - 98% accurate Pregnancy: - When sperm fertilizes ovum - Full Term (Gestation) 38 weeks (from conception) - Dated 40 weeks from last missed cycle… two weeks prior - 3 trimesters (3 month periods) - 3 stages occurs during first month - Zygotic or Germinal (0-2 weeks) from conception to implantation, initially the cell is single-celled and begins to divide - Embryonic (2-12 weeks) organisms is building vital systems - Fetal (12-38 weeks) different organism that has to mature and grow in size in order to survive the birth Prenatal Development: - Zygote: fertilized egg - Blastocyst: ball of cells - implants on uterus - Umbilical cord — nourishment, exchange of waste then filters of blood - Placenta: filters substances, protects against some - Embryo: implanted zygote - Internal organs form - Heart beats (4 weeks) not fully formed, but brain is already communicating to the heart - Appendages form (arms, legs) - Systems organize (12 weeks) nervous, circulatory systems - Very difficult to tell an embryo from one species to another (ex. dog, elephant, human) - Fetal - First kick felt (18 weeks) - Gender apparent through ultra-sound - Senses respond (eyes, ears) sensitive to light and sound - Lanugo: hair-like cover - Age of viability (28 weeks) if they were born their internal organs could support life, ex: lungs, heart - Rotates (36 weeks) to head down, face towards spine position AKA birthing position - Expected to intake more calories to maintain health of baby Teratogens: - Toxins that harm the fetus (drugs) - Aspirine, caffeine - low birth rate low IQ, miscarriage, premature birth - Cocaine, marijuana - withdrawal, attention, perception, failing organs - Tabacco - heart and breathing problems, 12% of moms smoke - Alcohol - Mental retardation - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - small head (smaller brain), epicentral folds, flat mid face, smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, low nasal bridge, short nose, small eye openings, underdeveloped jaw, hand crease different… spikes upwards Notes - 2/12/16 Birthing: Cervix: junction of the two lower uterus muscles, usually closed - hormones soften tissues of the cervix - leads to mild contractions / irregular - eventually become more intense + frequent 3 stages of the birthing process - stage 1: everything to do with cervix, when the cervix is widening and thinning. The tissue that makes this opening becomes thinner - result of muscle contraction in the uterus (labor) - most intense stage - transition - stage 2: the actual birth - crowning occurs, the tissue around the vaginal area is very sensitive - contractions will continue after the birth - stage 3: after birth - the placenta has to be born (the after birth) umbilical chord - contractions last days after birth to get cervix back to normal size - In home birth - Traditional Hospital Birth - Vaginal birth - Water birth - heated to 90-95 degree (body temp) - Zero risk to the baby - still breathing through umbilical chord - could be expensive $$$ - C-section - Incision made in the abdomen - Higher rate now - used if baby is not head first or over sized Moms + Babies go through changes - Mom produces more blood - “ “ After birth - Get new born babies basic vitals - A - appearance of skin “ “ - heart rate, breathing (loud/strong cry), skin tone (red, irritated means good circulation) muscular activity - perfect score = 10 - takes test twice Premature - born before 38 weeks - under 5, 5 1/2 pounds - used to be very problematic Naming… - Freakanomics.. -


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