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Bio; Chapter 3

by: Makenzie Strand

Bio; Chapter 3 BIOL 113

Makenzie Strand
GPA 3.2

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Cellular Function and the composition
Ross, J
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Strand on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 113 at Western Kentucky University taught by Ross, J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see GENERAL BIOLOGY in Biology at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Chapter 3 Cellular Function *Level of Organization -boundary between nonliving and living -structural & functional unit of an organism -smallest structure capable of performing all functions necessary of life -all cells related by descent from earlier cells 3 types: Prokaryotic-lack true nucleus (bacteria) Eukaryotic-membrane enclosed structures Archean- qualities of both The Cell theory -All organisms are composed of one or more cells -cells are basic living unit of structure & function -all cells come from another cell Cell Size -varies—small -Ex: frog egg I millimeter (1mm) SmallestLargest: Atom, amino acids, protein, virus, most bacteria, plant & animal cells, human egg -being small is an advantage: -nutrients can enter; wastes (CO2) can exit -All cells increase in volume, the amount of surface are decreases Cube Shaped: Volume increases by the cube of the side (height x width x depth) **Prokaryotic Cells -no membrane nucleus -Comprise domains bacteria & archaea -Generally unicellular (single, strings, or clusters) -not all cause disease some bacteria is beneficial **Plasma Membrane & Cytoplasm -Cells are surround by a plasma membrane -Controls what can go in and out of a cell -Semifluid medium inside the cell is called the cytoplasm (Water, salt, organic molecules) ** Bacterial Anatomy Outside the membrane consisting of peptidoglycan --complex molecule composed of chains of disaccharides joined together Capsules: gelatinous sheath that surrounds the cell wall Flagellum: long thin appendage for movement in some bacteria (sperm, repertory system, digestive system) Fimbria: short appendages that attach to appropriate surface Increase ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease Nucleoid: region in cytoplasm where a single bacterial chromosome is located; not surrounded by membrane3 Plasmids: small accessory rings of DNA that can be passed from one cell to another Ribosomes: used for protein synthesis Thylakoids: Membrane of flattened disks that contain light sensitive pigments in cyanobacteria Prokaryotic: structurally simple; metabolically diverse; adapted to most types of environment; no nucleus **Eukaryotic Cells Structurally complex; true membrane bound nucleus and organelles; make up animals plants fungi and protists -Cell Walls Plants cell may have a primary & secondary cell wall Cellulose & chitin make up fungi cell walls Lignin is found in secondary cell walls **Organelles of Eukaryotic -Originally referred to membranous structures -Well defined cell structure that performs a particular functions -Cell is analogous to a factory where raw materials enter, whereupon, different departments turn them into various products - (must get rid of waste) **The Nucleus Prominent structure Stores DNA (every cell has DNA) DNA governs the characteristics & metabolism Chromatin: -Consists of DNA & associated proteins -Coils & condensed into chromosomes Nucleoplasm: semifluid medium found in nucleus Nucleolus: RNA made Nuclear Envelope: double membrane that separate nucleus from the cytoplasm Nuclear Pores: openings that permit transport of protein & ribosomal subunits Nuclear Lamina: shape of the nucleus; composed of protein **Ribosomes Protein synthesis -Uses RNA as template -Large & small subunits (made of RNA and protein molecules) Found in: Polyribosomes: several ribosomes associated with a single mRNA -Attached to endoplasmic reticulum -Free in cytoplasm Endomembrane systems -Nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, several vesicles -Acts as transport and processing section -Compartmentalizes cells so that enzymatic reaction restricted to specific cell sections Composition: Lysosomes vacuoles plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus *Components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory Rough ER: -studded with ribosomes -processing, folding & modification of proteins Smooth ER: -has no attached ribosomes -synthesizes phospholipids & steroids -stores calcium ions -various other function depending on cell type Golgi apparatus -3-20 slightly curved sacks Animal cell: one side directed towards the er and the other directed toward plasma membrane “Shipping center” Apparatus collects, sort’s packages and distribute materials such as proteins and lipids -apparatus receives proteins and also lipid filled vesicles that bud from the ER -proteins made in rough ER have tags that serve as zip codes to direct golgi apparatus where to send them -Lipids and proteins are modified in transit through the Golgi before being repackaged into secretory vesicles -Contents are discharged out of the cell by secretion. Lysosomes -Membrane-enclosed vesicles formed by Golgi -contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes -act as garbage disposals -break down unwanted foreign warn out parts -bring macromolecules into the cell Vacuoles -large membrane sacks -larger then vesicles -common in plants -store substances (water, pigments, toxins) Peroxisomes -membrane bound vesicles containing enzymes derived from cytoplasmic ribosomes +actions of enzymes lead to hydrogen peroxide +h2o2 quickly broken down into water & oxygen by the enzyme -Functions vary amongst cells +In liver cells, they metabolize fats or produce bile. +In germinating plant cells, they oxidize fatty acids. Energy Related Organelles -Chloroplasts & mitochondria are organelles that specialize in converting energy into useable forms of cells -chloroplast: use solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates -Mitochondria: use the breakdown of carbohydrates to produce ATP. Chloroplasts -site pf photosynthesis in plants & algae Structure: -double membrane -make most of their own proteins -Stroma: fluid filled space bounded by double membranes • Contains single circular DNA molecule and ribosomes -Grana: stacks of thylakoids • Chlorophyll located in thylakoid membranes Mitochondria -found in all eukaryotic cells -site of cellular respiration -Structure: -bounded by double membrane -matrix: inner fluid filled space -cristae: formed by invaginations of the inner membrane (Invaginations increase surface area) -contain their own DNA ***Cytoskeleton -3 inner connecting proteins -Actin filaments -intermediate filaments -microtubules -maintains cell shape -assists in movement of cell and organelles -dynamic: assembled & disassembled as needed Roles -cytoskeleton helps to support the cell & maintain its shape -it interacts with motor proteins to produce motility -Inside the cell, vesicles can travel along “monorails” provided by the cytoskeleton -Recent evidence suggests that the cytoskeleton may help regulate biochemical activities Actin Filaments -two long, this, flexible, actin chains twisted in helix -Roles: Provide structures Form projections Allow for formation of pseudopod in amoeboid movement Actin interact with motor molecules for movement (Muscle cells) In the presence of ATP, myosin pulls actin align Intermediate filaments Between actin and microtubules Functions: -support nuclear envelops -help for cell to cell functions such as those holding skin cells tightly together -Strengthen human hair Microtubules -hollow cylinders made of globular tubulin Assembly: -Controlled by Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC) -Most important MTOC is centrosome Roles: -help maintain cell shape -interact w/ motor molecules kinesin and dynein to cause movement of organelles -Form spindle apparatus during cell division Centrioles -found in centrosomes of animal cells -may be involved in assembly & disassembly -short cylinder with a 9+0 pattern of microtubules Cilia & Flagella -hair like projections that aid in cell movement -In eukaryotes, cilia are much shorter than flagella. -Both are membrane-bound cylinders. • 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules -Examples +Paramecia move by means of cilia. +Cells of the upper respiratory tract use cilia to sweep debris trapped within mucus. Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells -Fossil record suggests first cells were prokaryotes. -Biochemical data’s suggests archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes. -Eukaryotes evolved in stages from prokaryotes. • Endosymbiotic theory-Mitochondria and chloroplasts derived from prokaryotes that were taken up by a larger cell – Mitochondria were originally heterotrophic bacteria – Chloroplasts were originally cyanobacteria – After entering the host cell, the bacteria begun living together cooperatively Supporting Evidence for hypothesis 1. Both organelles are similar to bacteria in size and structure 2. Both organelles are bounded by a double membrane – The outer membrane may be derived from the engulfing vesicle – The inner one may be derived from the plasma membrane of the original prokaryote 3. Both organelles contain a limited amount of genetic material and divide by splitting. – Their DNA is a circular loop like that of prokaryotes. 4. Although most of the proteins within these organelles are produced by the eukaryotic host, they have their own ribosomes and produce some proteins. – Their ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes 5. The RNA (ribonucleic acid) base sequence of the ribosomes in chloroplasts and mitochondria also suggests a prokaryotic origin of these organelles.


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