COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 2/9 2/11
COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 2/9 2/11 COMM 415
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
2/9 *Last material on Gaze* Relationship Qualities • Intimacy= more gaze • Rubin (2970) romantic love scale=more mutual gaze • Couples who engage in more mutual gaze perceived as liking each other more Cultural Differences • Arabs> Americans on gaze • Contact cultures(Italy, Morocco, Costa Rica, Thailand, etc)=more gaze (vs. United States, Russia, Finland) • Blacks gaze more while talking, less while listening compared to whites • LIMITATION: research based on Black-black conversations Clothing • Uniquely human • Clothing: any artifactual addition to the body that changes its appearance • First nonverbal cue to be noticed • A nonverbal comm system • 1 of 2 nonverbal behaviors regulated by law (2 ndis touch) Vicary 1989 • “clothing on the moving body becomes a sign and symbol of a comm system as complex and precise as most verbal languages” Components of Clothing • Garments- dress, costume, apparel, headwear, footwear, underwear • Ornaments (artifacts)- badges, tattoos, masks, jewelry, chains, straps, buttons, buckles, ribbons, lace, fur • Cosmetics- paints, powders, oils, perfume, makeup • Devices- wigs, corsets, braces, padding, dentures • Treatments- hair dying, tattoos, curling, dyes • Equipment- eyeglasses, watches, ice skates, pocket watch, pipes, backpacks, gloves, crutches • Tools- knives, combs, mirrors, scissors, pens, toothpicks Functions of Clothing • Decoration • Protection (physical and psychological) • Sexual attraction and availability • Self-assertion • Self-denial • concealment • group identification • status or role Encoding • Artifacts- jewelry as emblematic comm (wedding ring), tattoo emblems (cross, teardrop), badge emblem (police badge) Clothing Style and Self Description • Police line-up study • Suspect described as well-dressed or casually dresses • Self-description inventory • Well-dressed participants: neat, cultivated, accurate, restrained, strategic • Casual-dresses participants, easygoing, clumsy, tolerant, emotional, nonchalant Effects of Business Attire on the Wearer • Survey of Business Professionals • Felt most competent and authoritative when wearing formal business or business casual • More trustworthy and productive when wearing business casual • Least friendly and creative when wearing formal business attire Formal Clothing Enhances cognitive processing • When university students wore more formal clothing they performed better at abstract processing tasks • Clothing formality may actually improve people’s cognitive processing capacity Group membership • The wearer is similar to other people who wear such clothes Status • Conspicuous consumption-> social status • Clothes indicate affluence, nut only for certain groups o Kardashians vs. Steve Jobs • Working class students use brand name clothes to suggest economic capital • Upper class students distance themselves from this use of clothing- don't want to show off “aesthetic distance” 2/11 Clothing and Apparel (Con’t) Decoding Impression formation • grammar school girls judged photos o snobbish o fun-loving o shy o gay o intelligent o anxious Teacher attributes and clothing (Butler and Roessel) • long sleeve casual shirt, jeans, tennis shoes • long sleeve crew neck sweater with white shirt, grey dress pants, plain shoes • long sleeve shirt, sleeves rolled up, striped tie, dress pants, plain shoes • shirt with small print tie, navy sport coat, grey pants, dress shoes • students were asked what they thought about each teacher based on these different styles of dress o Jeans: could discuss problems with; fun in the classroom; given least respect; does not know anything o Sweater: neutral; little response, didn’t leave a bold impression o Shirt and tie: looks like a teacher, knows subject matter, graded fairly, approachable o Sport coat: knows subject matter; no sense of humor; doesn’t listen to opinions; too much homework; would embarrass students; would prefer not to have Replication: Sebastian et al. • Business professors • Formal dress led to greater attributions of expertise than did causal dress • Formal dress led to lower feelings of likeability than did casual dress Tipping Bartenders (karagiorgakis and Malone) • Female bartender, 4 outfits (with = proportion of M & F patrons in all conditions) • Little: black tank top and black form fitting shorts • Medium: black V-neck t-shirt and black form fitting capris • Full condition: black long sleeve shirt and black pants • Regular uniform: black V-neck t-shirt with blue jeans o Tipping highest when bartender wore “little” outfit but only when patrons paid in cash Clothing and Interactive Phenomena • Walk against traffic signal • Dress: high status (suit)/ low status (soiled and patched pants, denim shirt) • More pedestrians followed high status model against traffic signal Tattoos and Piercings • Encoding o Traits of people who get tattooed (Silver et al.) § Weaker social bonds to parent, school, religion § Victimized in the past § Negative self-appraisal (low self-esteem, depression, suicidal thoughts) § More involved in alcohol, marijuana, and delinquency § Less conscientious § More extraverted § High sensation seekers § More accepting of sex without commitment o What do tattoos mean to the wearer? § 18-38-year-old women with tattoos § major themes: ú connection to self ú life events ú relationships ú spirituality § obtaining tattoos resulted in a change in how participants viewed themselves and caused some behavioral changes o motivations for tattoos and body piercings § historically: ú a symbol of an important past evet, love, or friendship group membership ú a marker of individuality § more recently: ú “human canvas” hypothesis • the idea of people seeing their skin as a canvas to be decorated ú “upping the ante” hypothesis • trying to out do the other people who are tattooed or pierced • how far can I take this (how extreme) Decoding • Impressions of women with tattoos (Swami and Funrham) o university students rated tattooed women as: § less physically attractive § more sexually promiscuous ú heavier drinkers (cf. Gueguen) o line drawings of a model with 0-3 visible tattoos Gender Issues and Clothing • across all species of animals we studied the male is more brilliant in appearance and women are more dull • with humans it’s the opposite • more and more women wear the clothing style of men in business and corporate positions o have to adapt to the uniform of men o it’s seen as a sign of success (suite/men’s style)
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