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HD 205: Chapter 8 Notes

by: Paula Tattoni

HD 205: Chapter 8 Notes HD 205-001

Paula Tattoni

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About this Document

These are the notes for Physical Development in Childhood (Chapter 8)
HD 205
Blanche C. Komara
Class Notes
Human Development, preschool, physical development, Childhood, Chapter 8
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paula Tattoni on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 205-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Blanche C. Komara in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see HD 205 in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Chapter 8: Physical Development in Early Childhood Thursday, February 11, 2016 2:34 PM A Physical Development in Early Childhood a Body Growth Slows i Child's shape becomes more streamlined ii Individual differences in size because more apparent b Skeletal Growth Continues i New epiphyses (growth centers) emerge ii Primary teeth are replaced by permanent teeth B Brain Development a Between ages of 2 and 6, the brain increases to 90% of its adult weight and undergoes reshaping and relining b Preschoolers improve in physical coordination; perception, attention, and memory; language; logical thinking; imagination c Brain Plasticity i Ensures that child will acquire certain abilities even if some brain areas are damaged ii Declines as synaptic pruning occurs b Cognitive functions increasingly localize in distinct neural systems c Rapid growth occurs in prefrontal-cortical areas devoted to executive function B Handedness a Reflects greater capacity of dominant cerebral hemisphere to carry out skilled motor action b Begins as early as tenth prenatal week c Affected by prenatal events (positions in uterus), practice, and culture d Early damage to left hemisphere may cause shift in handedness, but most left-handers have no developmental problems e Unusual lateralization may have certain advantages, such as excelling in verbal and math skills B Cross-Section of the Human Brain a Cerebellum: structure that aids in balance and control of body movement b Reticular Formation: structure in brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness c Hippocampus: inner-brain structure that plays a vital role in memory and spatial understanding d Amygdala: inner-brain structure that processes novelty and emotional information e Corpus Callosum: large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres B Influences on Physical Growth and Health a Environmental Lead b Heredity and Hormones c Emotional Well-Being d Sleep Habit and Problems e Nutrition f Infectious Disease g Childhood Injuries B Low-Level Lead Exposure and Children's Development a Longitudinal studies show negative relationship between lead exposure and IQ b Since 1980, laws limiting lead content of paint and mandating lead-free gasoline have led to aa sharp decline in children's lead levels c Low-SES children are more likely to live in lead-contaminated areas and to experience risks that magnify lead-induced damage B Heredity and Hormones a Children's physical size and growth rate are related to their parents b Genes influence growth by controlling hormone production c Pituitary gland releases two growth-inducing hormones i Growth Hormone: necessary for development of almost all body tissues ii Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone: prompts release of thyroxine; needed for brain development and for full impact of GH B Emotional Well-Being a Children's emotional well-being profoundly affects their growth and health b High stresses suppresses release of GH c Extreme emotional deprivation can lead to psychosocial dwarfism i Decreased secretion of GH and melatonin ii Very short stature and immature skeletal age iii Serious adjustment problems B Sleep Habits and Problems a Sleep contributes to body growth and cognitive performance b Sleep difficulties are associated with impaired cognitive performance c Children's poor sleep affects parents' sleep, generating family stress d Variations by ethnicity are seen in napping, bedtime routines, and cosleeping B Nutrition a Appetite becomes unpredictable b Most preschoolers prefer similar foods c Social environment influences food choices: i Children imitate food choices of people they admire ii Repeated, unpressured exposure to new foods increases acceptance iii Emotional climate at mealtimes has powerful impact iv Restricting foods increases child's desire for those foods v Children living in poverty may lack access to sufficient high-quality food B Dietary Deficiencies in Early Childhood a Most common dietary deficiencies of preschool years i Protein ii Essential vitamins and minerals: iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C b Effects of nutritionally deficient diet: i Small size ii Attention and memory difficulties iii Poorer intelligence and achievement test scores iv Hyperactivity and aggression B Encouraging Good Nutrition a Offer a varied, healthy diet b Offer predictable meals and several snacks daily c Serve small portions and allow the child to have seconds d Offer healthy new foods repeatedly and patiently e Keep mealtimes pleasant and noncoercive f Avoid using food as a reward or restricting access to certain foods B Infectious Disease and Malnutrition a Poor diet depresses the immune system, making children susceptible to disease b Disease contributes to malnutrition, hindering physical growth and cognitive development i Reduces appetite ii Limits absorption of food, intestinal infections (diarrhea) b Widespread diarrhea in developing countries leads to 1 million childhood deaths annually: i Impairment and death can be prevented with oral rehydration therapy (ORT - glucose, salt, water solution) ii Zinc supplements also reduce incidence of diarrhea B Immunization a Widespread immunization had led to dramatic decline in childhood diseases in industrialized nations b About 20% of US infants and toddlers and 17% of preschoolers are not fully immunized i Many low-income families lack health insurance coverage or a primary-care physician ii Some parents believe discredited media reports of a link between vaccination and autism iii Public education on immunization if badly needed B Otitis Media and Development a Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection): most common between 6 months and 3 years b Rates nearly double in children who attend child-care centers c Frequent cases can disrupt language and academic progress d Prevention: i Frequent screening ii Prompt medical attention iii Infection control in child-care settings iv Verbally stimulating adult-child interaction v Vaccines (flu) B Preventing Childhood Injuries a Laws prevent many injuries (car safety seats, child-resistant caps, flameproof clothing) b Many parents and children behave in ways that compromise safety: i Safety seats: 27% of US parents don't use them; of those who do, 40% to 84% use them incorrectly ii Parents overestimate children's knowledge of safety rules, rather than monitoring and controlling access to hazards B Reducing Unintentional Injuries a Provide age-appropriate supervision and safety instruction b Know the child's temperament c Eliminate the most serious dangers from the home d Always restrain children properly in back seat of car e Select safe playground equipment and sites f Be extra cautious around water g Practice safety around animals B Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood a Gross-Motor Skills: walking, running, jumping, hopping, catching, throwing, swinging, riding b Fine-Motor Skills i Self-Help: dressing, eating ii Drawing: line and circle, tadpole image B Progression of Drawing Skills a Scribbles: during second year b First Representational Forms: i Around age 3 - labels already-made drawings ii Age 3 to 4 - draws boundaries and tadpole-shaped people b More Realistic Drawings i Preschool to school age b Early Printing: ages 4 to 6 B Chinese Children's Advanced Drawing Skills a Several cultural factors promote advanced drawing skills in Chinese children: i 4000-year-old artistic tradition ii Belief that creatively must build on a foundation of artistic knowledge and techniques iii Instruction in painting using prescribed brush strokes iv Writing instruction that emphasizes details of characters b In contrast, US art education is more diverse and emphasizes independence and self-expression B Individual Differences in Motor Skills a Body Build: taller, more muscular bodies move more quickly, acquire skills earlier b Sex: boys are ahead in skills requiring power and race; girls are advantaged in fine-motor skills and in skills requiring good balance and foot movement c Social pressures channel children into activities B Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development a Motor skills are best mastered through everyday play: i Formal lessons have little added impact ii Preschoolers should have at least 60 minutes a day of adult- structured play, plus several hours of child-directed play iii Children need appropriate play spaces and equipment b Daily routines support fine-motor development


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