First couple weeks of class notes
First couple weeks of class notes PHI 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Avi Fox on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 101 at University of Miami taught by Noel Alphonse in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Philosophy 101 5 questions we ll be studying 1 Does god exist 2 What is the nature of right and wrong 3 What is the nature of knowledge 4 What is the nature of the mind 5 What is the meaning of life Modus Tollens Valid argument form and a follows a logical flow Validity does the conclusion logically come from the premises Sound are all the premises true Argument sequence of statements one of which is being argued for on the basis of others Premises reasons that support the conclusion Conclusion the end result ls morality relative to the society or is it based on individual opinion Ethical relativism there is no such thing as objective morality This principle follows that an ethical statement is true only relative to a set of norms There is no universal code for morality Subjective absolutism what makes something right is that one approves of it Subjective relativism what makes an action right is that its approved by him Right and wrong are entirely dependent on what each individual holds right This thought process is implies that any act someone does is morally acceptable so long as they agree to it this principle is valid but not sound Cultural relativism right and wrong is determined by the culture you inhabit What makes it right is that members of a culture approve This doesn t work either because it means that something is both morally right and wrong If culture A says this practice is wrong but culture B says its ok By this principle they are both correct This is logically unsound However supporters say that it promotes tolerance This principle is valid but not sound Emotivism moral utterances are expressions of emotion not viewpoints Therefore can be neither right nor wrong Moral judgment moral standard factual beliefs Divine command theorywhat makes it right is that God command it39s to be done The problem with this is did god command it because it is the right thing to do or does god commanding it make it right Justice equals should be treated as equals Mercy unnecessary suffering is wrong Evilsomething that is the source or cause of suffering Moral evil evil caused by humans to other humans Natural evil evil suffered by humans that is outside of our control Utilitarian theories Utilitarianism the morally bestbetter alternative is the one that produces the most pleasure for the greatest numbers decided through net utility l M happiness Net utility 1 Consequentialist ethical theory the consequences of an action make it right or wrong The moral worth of an act is entirely determined by the consequences of that act Teleological related to goals or purposes 2 Doctrine of negative responsibility you are responsible for both the actions you commit and the ones you fail to act on Realist theory there are beliefs independent of moral facts that determine right or wrong 1 Nonconsequentialism the moral worth of an act depends exclusively on that act 2 Formalist deontological ethical theory an action is right or wrong based off its form not the consequences Diminishing marginal utility the marginal utility of a good or service decreases as the goodservice increases Giving a homeless man 100 vs giving Bill Gates 100 The singer solution to world poverty thought experiment 1 If we can prevent something had from happening without sacri cing anything of comparable moral importance then we ought to do so 2 Death by starvation is bad 3 We can prevent many people from dying of starvation by sacri cing our luxuries which aren39t as important Utilitarianism seems to imply we are responsible for our failure to act to stop world poverty by sacri cing our luxuries Objections the government should do it How do we know where the money is really going poor resource allocations If we donated all of our luxuries the economy would crash God and the problem of evil Theism the belief that gods exists Monotheism belief in one AllPKG god Polytheism belief in many gods Atheism belief that there is no god Agnosticism the view that we can t know for sure whether god does or doesn t exist They have open minds to the idea of god just not to the idea that we will ever know Epistemological claim theory of study of knowledge Pantheism the belief that the universe is god and that god is the universe Necessary vs sufficient Something is necessary if it is a requirement Sufficient is a guarantee Monotheism there are 3 requirements for god Omnibenevolent An omnibenevolent god can prevent evil Knows the difference between right and wrong and know how to prevent evil from coming into existence 0 Omniscient not a precursor to free will Omnipotent AKA AllPKG all powerful knowing and good The problem of evil If god were toe exist then that being would be ALLPKG If an AllPKG being existed there would be no evil There is evil Hence there is no god This argument is valid because the conclusion follows the premises and the logical form if p then q Question the soundness Ex Not sure if evil is truly unnecessary Theodicy an attempt to justify belief in god given the existence of evil 0 Free will defense the individuals are to blame for their own life choices This defense states that without evil there would be no free will 0 The knowledge defense evil must exist in order for us to have knowledge of it If there was no evil it wouldn t be something someone can fathom There would be notion of right vs wrong Objection suffering doesn39t produce positive consequences 0 The Finite god god is powerless to stop evil from happening 0 Ideal humanity evil makes humanity better as a whole 0 Mysterious ways theodicy we can t understand gods plan the bigger picture No logical reason to believe this Ontological defense evil exists in order for there to be good Something can t be de ned as good without the possibility of evil
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