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Week Notes

by: Robert Notetaker

Week Notes Bio 181

Robert Notetaker
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About this Document

Mutations and Gene Expressions and intro to Ecology
Biology 181
Dr. Holyoak
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Notetaker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 181 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Dr. Holyoak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology 181 in Biology at Brigham Young University - Idaho.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Ecology Notes Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Ned to know physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect life and how these factors affect each other. Factors that affect organisms: Temperature, seasonal change and across the surface of the planet. Let’s think about why we have seasons. Earth’s seasons are caused primarily by the tilt of the earth Why is it warmer in the tropics than the poles? The sunlight surface area which enters the atmosphere determines depending on the earth’s tilt. Unequal heating of the earth’s atmosphere and surface causes global air circulation in the form of large circulating cells or bands that encircle the earth. Winds are caused by unequal heating of the earth. Coriolis effect: Something that is moving but not connected to the earth there is an apparent affection reflects left or right. Ocean currents are made by winds. Intertropical convergence zone: line of clouds shifts North and South between seasons. Surface wind produce oceanic surface winds. Oceanic currents tropical to polar. Other factors that affect climate: Local geology, proximity to lager bodies of water… Rain Shadow: Forest on one side of mountain and none on other side. Cold adaptive species: Trees move their seeds up more North due to temperature change. Climate Change: Climate is changing. Mutations and Gene Expression Notes Ch. 17.5-6 Mutagen: Something that changes the genetic code- Radioactive decay, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Smoke, Cigarettes, HIV Virus, etc. Silent Mutation affects a codon. Affects the third base in the codon. WOBBLE. Several different codons to code for an amino acid. Point Mutation: Single Base modification. -Substitution changes one base for another base. (Silent) Deletion Mutation: One of the bases in the template code is deleted. Shifts the reading frame from one spot. Can be very harmful Insertion: An extra base is added. Shifts the reading frame from one spot. Can be very harmful. Sickle Cell Anemia: Mutation of a gene on the short arm of Chromosome 11. (Point Mutation) Missense mutation can have a lethal or even no effect at all on phenotype. Frameshift point mutation can cause a nonsense mutation: Causes a stop codon even though it frameshifts. Deletion mutation of small number of bases. (Cystic Fibrosis)


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