Sensory and Perception Notes
Sensory and Perception Notes PSY 1013
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Ward on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Alison Patev in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Sensory and Perception February 5, 2016 The Process of Sensing Sensation o The detecting of sensational stimuli using the 5 senses Transduction o The feeling and reaction of a stimuli Perception o Your actual experience of your stimulation Sensory adaptation o Reducing the response of sensory receptors after repeated Thresholds Absolute Threshold o Absolute minimum amount of a stimulus necessary for perception Differences Threshold o The minimum amount of a stimulus needed in order to detect differences between levels of stimuli Signal Detection Theory o We don’t always notice things that are every day such as clothes on your body o Hit- Correctly identifying an experience o False Alarm- misidentifying an experience o Correct rejection- Not sensing something that isn’t there o Miss- a stimulus happened and you miss it Gestalt Principles of Perception Law of Pragnanz o We want to perceive things in an organized, coherent manner. Symmetry o Anything that seems balanced or equally proportioned are viewed as belonging together o E.g., Figure-Ground principle- figures tend to stand out against a background but you can change that background Proximity o Objects that are close together tend to be viewed as part of the same group Similarity o Objects that are similar tend to be viewed in the same group Continuity o Our brains want to view objects as a continuous whole Closure o If a familiar object that is partially completed, your brain can fill in the rest of it and complete it as a whole. Processing Top-Down Processing o We use our previous experiences and prior knowledge to guide our perception Bottom-Up Processing o You guide your perception by putting individual bits of sensory to create a completed picture Parallel Processing o We use both top-down and bottom-up processing at the same time Attention Selective Attention o Focusing only on one task o Drawbacks to selective attention- you often miss other things Ex. Moonwalking bear through the basketball game video Divided Attention o Focusing on multiple tasks at the same time o Benefits: You can pay more attention to your external environment o Drawbacks: You may get distracted from important things Vision Light o Travels in waves that vary in wavelength and amplitude Wavelength o The distance between the peaks of different waves o Correspond to color- longer wave lengths are closer to red while short wave lengths are more blue/purple Amplitude o Height of the wave o Corresponds with dim or bright colors o Short amplitude is dimmer while a taller amplitude is brighter o Hue All the different colors of the spectrum o Intensity Brightness o Saturation Colorfulness/ density of color The Eye Parts of the Eye o Sclera- the white of the eye o Cornea- curved, transparent layer that protects the eye and helps to bend incoming light o Pupil- opening in the center of the eye that dictates the amount of light that is let in through the eye o Iris- Colored area containing muscles that regulate the size of the pupil o Lens- Transparent disk that focuses light rays onto the retina o Retina- Back inner surface of the eye Fovea o Center point of the retina and has a high concentration of cones Cones o Sensitive to different wave lengths of light o Helps you to see in color Rods o Sensitive under low levels of light o More concentrated on the outside of the retina Dark Adaptation o Your rods and cones have to adapt to the low level of light o You eyes adjust to the dark Optic Nerve o A group of neurons at the back of the eye that connects to the brain Blind Spot Optic Chasm o Where the neurons from both eyes cross LGN o Region in the thalamus that helps to send visual messages and nerve impulses to the occipital lobe Visual Cortex o Area of the occipital lobe where visual happens Myopia o Nearsightedness o You eye is elongated therefore light falls short of the retina Hyperopia o Farsightedness o The eye is shorter from front to back therefore light is over projected behind the retina Recognizing Things Object recognition o Perceptual Constancy- the ability to perceive objects the same way despite different changes in perceptive o Shape, Size, and Color Constancy Depth Perception o Binocular v. Monocular Binocular- distance queue based on the perspective of both eyes Convergence- You eye muscles contract to focus on one object Monocular- Queue based on the perceptive of one eye Accommodation- the lens of one eye curves to focus on a nearby object Experience of Color Trichromatic Theory o Says that we have three different types of cones, cones for short, medium, and long wavelengths Opponent- process Theory o Says that we see colors in opposing pairs Hearing Sound Waves o Have wavelength and amplitude Wave Length o The number of cycles of a wave in a second Pitch o Perception of wavelength o High pitch has a higher wavelength o Low pitch has a shorter wavelength Amplitude o Height of the Waves o Corresponds to loudness o Taller waves are louder o Shorter waves are softer Structure of the Ear Pinna o Flexible outer flap of the ear, which channels sound waves into the ear canal Auditory Canal o Conducts sound waves to the eardrum Eardrum o Membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves Ossicles o Bones of the inner Ear- hammer, anvil, stirrup -attached to the eardrum Semicircular Canal o One of the three fluid filled structures that play as role in balance Cochlea o Converts vibration into neutral activity Hair Cells o Responsible for sending neuron impulses to the brain Sound Localization o Identifying where a sound is coming from by comparing the stimulus in one ear with the stimulus from the other o Time o Intensity- the sound will be more intense on the ear closest to the sound Sound Shadow o Sound is more intense of the ear that is closer to the sound and less on the ear facing away from the other ear
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