Vertebrate Week 4 Notes
Vertebrate Week 4 Notes BZ 214
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 214 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology- Vertebrates in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Vertebrates Week 4 02/09/2016 ▯ Gills continued Mouth, Pharynx, Stomach, Intenstinal line, and swim bladder as other membranes to exchange gas in addition to gills Gill arches- skeletal element on the gills o 4 gill arches on each side, each with 2 rows of filaments surface of the filaments is folded into lamellae that are perpendicular to the long axis of the filament (lamellae is where gas exchange takes place) lamellae are very thin, blood returns to the efferent artery by traveling through the lamellae or going the length of the filament o Types of internal Gills Pouched Gills- agnatha Septal gills- chondrichythyes Opercular gills- Osteichthyes; adds more musculature to the head region to allow for movement of opercular covers ▯ Swim bladders/Gas bladder in bony fish Physostomous- fish can gulp air at the surface to fill their swim bladder, swim bladder is connected to the guy by a pneumatic duct (shallow fish) Physoclistous- swim bladder completely separate from the digestive tract, gets filled by countercurrent exchange (deep water fish) o –cl (C is for closed) Want to maintain buoyancy if you’re not swimming and you want to maintain depth (if you want to go deeper-> release gas) Can also be used for o Courtship behavior- produce sounds o Weberian apparatus- bladder picks up vibrations and transmits them to the inner ear Similar but not homologous to the bones of the human inner ear ▯ Cartilaginous fish Do NOT have swim bladders A combination of all of these adaptions to maintain buoyancy o Cartilaginous skeleton (lighter skeleton) o Large liver that contains lipids or fat/oily (fat floats) o Positioning of the fins Fixed fins act like wings on a plane- providing lift If you remove the fins of a shark it will sink o Increased solute concentration of the blood ▯ Osmoregulation Necessity to maintain the proper internal environment in terms of solute concentration Freshwater fish- fish is saltier than the water, so pick up salt across the gills and release very little salt through the urine (trying to get rid of water NOT salt) Saltwater fish- water is going to flow out because there is more salt outside then inside (want to conserve water and release very little urine), salt moves in o Salt can diffuse back in, so you have to actively pump it out Osmoconformers- organisms who match their internal osmotic challenge to that of the environment o Chondrichthyes- maintain themselves with the same osmotic challenge as a freshwater fish Osmoregulator- an organism that exerts energy to maintain it’s osmotic balance Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney Pronephric- the most anterior portion of the kidney, and the first to form o Function only in the embryo of extant vertebrates Mesonephric- middle portion of the kidney Opisthonephric- found in adult fish and amphibians consists of the mesonephric and metanerpic portions Metanephric- found in adult amniotes is the kidney shaped kidney that only contains the metanephors drained by the uterer ▯ Loop of Henle Increase surface area for exchange Very important in birds and mammals to maintain osmotic regulation in a terrestrial environment Pressure filtration- blood pressure forces small molecules from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule. These molecules include water, glucose, amino acids, salts, and urea Selective reabsorption- diffusion and active transport return molecules to blood at the proximal convoluted tubule. Molecules rapidly returned to the blood include water, glucose, amino acids, and carious salt ions Tubular secretion- active transport moves molecules from blood into the distal convoluted tubule or collecting duct. This steps helps to rid the blood of such wastes as uric acid, creatine, hydrogen ions, ammonia, and various foreign molecules such as penicillin ▯ Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous fish One of the most successful groups in evolutionary history They are close to the top level predator in every ecosystem ▯ ▯
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