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BIL 160 Lecture 1-3 Notes

by: Ozerk Turan

BIL 160 Lecture 1-3 Notes BIL 160

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Ozerk Turan

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Lecture notes taken in the 3 first lectures of the semester
Evolution and Biodiversity
Dr. Paul Groff
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ozerk Turan on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 160 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Paul Groff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Evolution and Biodiversity in Biology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Biology Lecture 1-3 Notes  DNA: The Genetic Material o Each chromosome has one long DNA molecule with hundreds or thousands of genes  Genes encode information for building the molecules synthesized within the cell  Genes are the units of inheritance o DNA controls the development and maintenance of organisms  Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains arranged in a double helix  Each chain is made up of four kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides and nicknamed A, G, C, and T o Genes control protein production indirectly  DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into a protein  Gene Expression is the process of converting information from gene to cellular product  Life requires the transfer and transformation of energy and matter o The input of energy from the sun and the transformation of energy from one form to another make life possible o When organisms use energy to perform work, some energy is lost to the surroundings as heat o As a result, energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat  From ecosystems to molecules, interactions are important in biological systems o Interactions between the components of the system ensure smooth integration of all the parts o This holds true equally well for components of an ecosystem and the molecules in a cell  Ecosystems – an organism’s interactions with other organisms and the physical environment o At the ecosystem level, each organism interacts continuously with other organisms o These interactions may be beneficial or harmful to one or both of the organisms o Organisms also interact continuously with the physicals factors in their environment, and the environment is affected by the organisms living there  Evolution -> The core theme of biology o Evolution is the one idea that makes logical sense of everything we know about living organisms o The scientific explanation for both the unity and diversity of organisms is the concept that living organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors o Many kinds of evidence support the occurrence of evolution  What is a species? o Species are different “kinds” of living things often delimited from other species by the ability to interbreed:  Same species – can interbreed  Different species – can’t interbreed  What is a genus? o Genus = group of species that are similar and closely related  Eleutherodactylus is a genus that includes around 700 species of frogs  Eleutherodactylus planirostrus is one species of this genus  Morphological species concept – different species defined by difference in morphology (form) o Still important and widely used, type specimens document the scientific names of species  Each organism, as we see it at any one time, is only one stage of a life cycle o Life cycle – a continuing process of growth, change, and reproduction o An organism at any stage of a life cycle is connected to others that came before, and that will come after  “Species consist of populations of closely-related (but not identical) individual organism o Species are defined by ability of their members to interbreed  Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups of increasing breadth (more inclusive) o Domains, followed by kingdoms, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species  The Three Domains of Life o Organisms are divided into three domains, named Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya o Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea compose their prokaryotes  Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotic organisms o Includes three multicellular kingdoms  Plants, which produce their own food by photosynthesis  Fungi, which absorb nutrients  Animals, which ingest their food  Unity in the diversity of life o A striking unity underlies the diversity life; for example  DNA is the universal genetic language common to all organisms  Unity is evident in many features of cell structure  Evolution: descent with modification o Natural selection is one mechanism by which evolution in natural populations can occur, leading to adaptation  Charles Darwin and the process of natural selection o The environment selects for the propagation of beneficial traits – this is called natural selection o The process:  Population with varied traits  Elimination of individuals with certain traits  Reproduction of survivors  Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival o Natural selection results in the adaptation of organisms to their environment  For example, bat wings are an example of adaptation o The tree of life  “Unity in diversity” arises from “descent with modification”  For example, the forelimb of the bat, human, and horse and the whale flipper all share a common skeletal architecture  Fossils provide additional evidence of anatomical unity from descent with modification  Darwin proposed that natural selection could cause an ancestral species to give rise to two or more descendent species  For example, the finch species of the Galapagos Islands are descended from a common ancestor  Evolutionary relationships are often illustrated with treelike diagrams that show ancestors and their descendants


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