Psych 1001- 1 week
Psych 1001- 1 week PSY 1001
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Kim on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at City University of New York taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 1001 in Psychlogy at City University of New York.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Chapter 1 What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior: outward or over actions and reactions Mental process: internal, covert activity of our minds Psychology is a science Prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations Four Goals of Psychology Description What is happening? Explanation Why is it happening? theory: general explanation of a set of observations or facts Prediction Will it happen again? Control How can it be changed? Structuralism focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology laboratory Germany in 1879 Father of experimental psychology developed the technique of objective introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring one’s thoughts and mental activities Edward Titchener (Wundt’s student) brought structuralism to America Margaret Washburn (Titchener’s student) first woman to earn a PhD in Psychology Structuralism died out in the early 1900s Functionalism how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play – William James Influenced the modern fields of: Educational psychology Evolutionary psychology Industrialized/ Organized psychology PARADIGM Mary Whiton Calkins; denied PhD because she was a woman African Americans and early psychology Gestalt “good figure” psychology Started with Wertheimer who studied sensation and perception Gestalt ideas now part of the study of cognitive psychology cognitive psychology; field focusing not only on perception but also learning, memory, thought, processes, and problem solving. Psychoanalysis theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud *CHILDHOOD Freud’s patients suffered from nervous disorders with no apparent physical causes believed that these represented urges Descriptive Methods Case Study study of one individual in great detail advantage Tremendous amount of detail you don’t really know what’s there disadvantage cannot apply to others famous case study: Phineas Gage (railway worker, is impaled, 1920s1930s, cognitive skills there, personality drastically changed, did what he want, no tolerance for emotions) Surveys researchers ask a series of questions about the topic under study Given to representative sample sample(subset of population) representative sample: randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects population: the entire group of people of animals in which the researcher is interested (census) Survey advantages data from large numbers of people study cover behaviors Survey disadvantages researchers have to ensure representative sample or the results are not meaningful people are not always accurate (courtesy bias) (social desirability) (observer bias try to figure what person asking is looking for and helps that person out) Correlation measure of the linear relationship between two variables (if variable a goes up then does variable b go up too? i.e. a level of being scared b heart rate= positive correlation/ as relaxation increasesstress decrease=negative correlation) Measures of two variables go into a mathematical formula and produce a correlation coefficient (r), which represents two things: direction of the relationship strength of the relationship knowing the value of one variable allows researchers to predict the value of the other variable. variable: anything that can change or vary Correlation coefficient ranges from 1.00 to +1.00 The closer to +1.00 or 1.00, the stronger the relationship between the variables no correlation =0.0 perfect correlation= 1.00 or +1.00 Positive correlation: variables are related in the same direction as one increases, the other increases; vice versa Negative correlation: variables are related in opposite direction as one increases, the other decreases; vice versa Correlation does not prove causation! The Experiment Experiment a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of causeandeffect relationships Operational Definition* defining fear in a quantified way definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured definition: aggressive play Independent variable (IV) the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter IV: violent TV predictor variable Dependent variable the variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment DV: aggressive play i.e. DV= heartrate = as fear lvl increases – so does heartrate IV= fear level Experimental group subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable experimental group: watch TV i.e. No fear controlled (placebo or nothing) Mild Moderate Experimental Extreme Placebo Random Assignment the process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group controls for confounding (extraneous, interfering) variables anyone has equal chance of being in any group Placebo effect the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior i.e. –groups are given post pill no fear group should have no change experimental groups should have reduction of fear No change in placebo group Singleblind study subjects (in humans not used; use participants) do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control group (reduces placebo effect) Experimenter effect tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study i.e. egging the person on thinking they’re doing a good job or showing the person that they’re wrong thus allowing the participant think that he or she is “dumb” and get inaccurate data Doubleblind study neither the experimenter nor the subjects know which subjects are in the experimental or control group (reduces placebo effect and experimenter effect) Hypothesis the med X will significantly reduce effects of fear in mild, moderate, and extreme group in regards to phobia of snakes Independent variable timing of “high threat” question i.e. IV level of fear and placebo 4 levels of part one 3 levels of pill (none, pill, placebo) (different dosages) high dosage of med X will have stronger effect than medium and low dose (hypothesis pt 2) IV one level of fear and all, placebo, none DV Sweat, Heartrate Resultssupported hypothesis Hypothesis 1 (did med work and level of placebo effect) Hypothesis 2 (levels of fear) Ethics in Psychological Research (benefits should outweigh the risks) Institutional review boards groups of psychologists or other professionals who look over each proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study (could even be the inhabitants of the area/ will never be known by you and makes sure no harm it will come to you or if there is harm that it is justifiable) consent is a necessary component (but what if there is consent and the harm is higher?) (first thing that is looked for/it is your right to know even if there is no harm) Common ethical guidelines: The rights and wellbeing of participants must be weighed against the study’s value to science Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation i.e. In the case for children, they are asked if it is okay and a consent form is given to the parent. But if they want to leave then the person conducting experiment cannot ask them to come back. Deception must be justified Participants may withdraw from the study at any time Participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks. Investigators must debrief participants, telling them the true nature of the study and their expectations regarding the results. Data must remain confidential. (no name, address, number; if needed on separate file) If for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences for the participant, the researcher is responsible for detecting and removing, or correcting, these consequences Animal research answers questions we could never investigate with human research (ethology –study of animal for animal benefit/ translational animal study for human benefit) The focus is on avoiding exposing animal subjects to unnecessary pain or suffering (avoid humans to unnecessary pain or suffering) Animals are used in approximately 7 percent of psychological studies Critical thinking – making reasoned judgments about claims Four basic criteria 1. There are very few “truths” that do not need to be subjected to testing. 2. All evidence is not equal in quality. 3. Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot of expertise does not make everything that person claims automatically true. 4. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Chapter 2 Overview of Nervous System Nervous system an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body Neuroscience – study of the anatomy& physiology of the neuron deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue relationship to behavior and learning Neuron the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system Parts of the neuron –check romance papers later for pictures dendrites: branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons soma: the cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cell axon: long, tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells Glial cells are grey fatty cells that: provide support for the neurons to grow on and around deliver nutrients to neurons produce myelin to coat axons when you learn something new, you create more dendrites making more connections (recall/recognition) Myelin: fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse clean up waste products and dead neurons Ions: charge particles inside neuron: negatively charged outside neuron: positively charged Resting potential: the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse Action potential: the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon allows positive sodium ions to enter the cell Allornone: a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all Return to resting potential Communication Between Neurons Sending the message to other cells Axon terminals: rounded areas at the end of the branches at the end of the axon responsible for communicating with other nerve cells Synaptic vesicles: sacklike structures found inside the axon terminal containing chemicals neurotransmitter: chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell. Synapse/synaptic gap: microscopic fluidfilled space between the rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites or the surface of the next cell Receptor sites (LOCK AND KEY) : holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters (drugs i.e. cocaine – mimics dopamine dopamine is removed from the synapse by reuptake sites. Cocaine acts by blocking dopamine reuptake sites, allowing dopamine to remain active in the synapse longer.) Neurons must be turned ON AND OFF excitatory neurotransmitter: neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to fire inhibitory neurotransmitter: neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to stop firing Chemical substances can affect neuronal communication agonists: mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, antagonists: block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters NEUROTRANSMITTERS –FUNCTIONS **** (synaptic plasticity – ability to build new synapse) Neurotransmitters Functions Acetylcholine (ACh) Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in arousal, attention, memory, and controls muscle contractions Norepinephrine (NE) Mainly excitatory; involved in arousal and mood Dopamine (DA) Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure Serotonin (5HT) Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in sleep, mood, anxiety, and appetite Gabaaminobutyric acid (GABA) Major inhibitory neurotransmitter; involved in sleep and inhibits movement Glutamate Major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in learning, memory formation, nervous system development, and synaptic plasticity Endorphins Inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain relief Cleaning up the Synapse Reuptake: process by which the neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles Enzyme: complex protein that is manufactured by cells One enzyme specifically breaks up acetylcholine because muscle activity needs to happen rapidly; reuptake would be too slow Central Nervous System (CNS) part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord Spinal cord: a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes. The Reflex Arc: Three Types of Neurons Sensory neuron: a neuron that carries information from the sense to the central nervous system also called an afferent neuron Motor neuron: a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body also called efferent neuron Interneuron: a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information form the sensory neurons and send commands to the muscles through the motor neurons Interneurons also make up the bulk of the neurons in the brain *mirror neuron Neuroplasticity: the ability to constantly change both the structure and function of cells in response to experience or trauma. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself Divided into the: somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system Somatic Nervous System Soma= Body Somatic nervous system: division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the sense to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body sensory pathway: nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons motor pathway: nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of motor neurons Autonomic nervous system (ANS) division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and gland’ sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons sympathetic division (fightorflight system): part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal parasympathetic division: part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the daytoday functioning of the organs and glands. The Endocrine Glands glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream hormones: chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands Pituitary gland: gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormonesecreting glands (also known as the master gland) Pineal gland: endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin Thyroid gland: endocrine gland found in the neck that regulates metabolism Pancreas: endocrine gland that controls the levels of sugar in the blood Gonads: the sec glands; secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction ovaries: the female gonads testes: the male gonads Adrenal glands: endocrine glands located on top of each kidney secrete over thirty different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake provide a secondary source of sec hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence. Looking inside the Living Brain Clinical Studies deep lesioning: insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): milder electrical current that causes neurons to react as if they had received a message human brain damage transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic pulse are applied to the cortex using special copper wire coils that are positioned over the head repetitive TMS (rTMS) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) human brain damage. Mapping Structure Computed tomography (CT): brainimaging method using computercontrolled X rays of the brain Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) : brainimaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain. Mapping Functions: electroencephalogram (EEG): records electric activity of the brain below specific areas of the skull magnetoencephalography (MEG) position emission tomography (PET): radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a colorcoded image of brain activity of the brain; lighter colors indicate more activity single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): similar to PET, but uses different radioactive tracers functional MRI (fMRI): a computer makes of sort of “movie” of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods The Hindbrain Medulla: first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain responsible for lifesustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate Pons: larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom plays a part in sleep, dreaming, leftright body coordination, and arousal Reticular formation (RF): area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond responsible for selective attention Cerebellum: part of the lower brain located behind the pons controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement Structures under the Cortex The Limbic System A group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation thalamus: part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area Hypothalamus: small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the Amygdala: brain structure located near the hippocampus responsible for fear responses and the memory of fear Cingulate cortex Cortex Outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input Corticalization: wrinkling of the cortex allows a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull Cerebral hemispheres: the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain Corpus callosum: thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres The Lobes of the Brain Occipital lobe: section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain primary visual cortex: processes visual Parietal lobes sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations Temporal lobes: areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech primary auditory Frontal lobes: areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain; responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as Association Areas of Cortex Association areas: Broca’s aphasia: condition resulting from damage to Broca’s area (usually in left frontal lobe) causes the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, Wernicke’s aphasia: condition resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area (usually in left temporal lobe) causes the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language Spatial neglect: condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere results in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field Split Brain Research Cerebrum: the upper part of the brain SplitBrain Research study of patients with severed corpus callosum involves sending messages to only one side of the brain demonstrates right and left brain specialization Specialization of the Two Hemispheres ******Left Hemisphere –Right Hemisphere Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Controls the right hand Controls the left hand Spoken language Nonverbal Written language Visualspatial perception Mathematical calculations Music and artistic processing Logical thought processes Emotional thought and recognition Analysis of detail Process the whole Reading Patter recognition Facial Recognition Left side of the brain seems to control language, writing, logical thought, analysis, and mathematical abilities AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Causes of ADHD have highlighted the likelihood of more than one cause and more than one brain route to ADHD Current research is looking at a variety of areas including environmental factors such as lowlevel lead exposure, genetic influences, the role of heredity, and familial factors, and personality factors Chapter 3 Sensation The activation of receptors in the various sense organs Sensory receptors: specialized forms of neurons Stimulated by different kinds of energy rather than by neurotransmitters Sense organs: eyes ears nose skin taste buds Transduction: turning outside stimuli into neural activity Sensory Thresholds Just noticeable difference (jnd or the difference threshold): the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is present Subliminal Sensation Stimuli that are below the level of conscious awareness just strong enough to activate the sensory receptors but not strong enough for people to be consciously aware of them limin: “threshold” sublimin: “below the threshold” Subliminal perception: the process by which subliminal stimuli act upon the unconscious mind influencing behavior Habituation and Sensory Adaption Habituation: the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information (baby seeing something for the first time then becoming bored with it) Sensory adaption: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging Microsacccades: constant movement of the eyes; tiny little vibrations that people do not notice consciously prevent sensory adaption to visual stimuli Perceptual Properties of Light Brightness is determined by the amplitude of the wave how high or how low the wave actually is the higher the wave, the brighter the light will be low waves are dimmer Color, or hue, is determined by the length of the wave long wavelengths are found at the red end of the visible spectrum (the portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye) shorter wavelengths are found at the blue end Saturation: the purity of the color people see mixing in black or gray would lessen the saturation The wavelengths that people can see are only a small part of the whole electromagnetic spectrum Light enters the eye through the cornea and pupil. The iris controls the size of the pupil. Form the pupil, light passes through the lens to the retina, where it is transformed into nerve impulses. The nerve impulses travel to the brain along the optic nerve. Structure of the Eye Cornea: clear membrane that covers the surface of the eye protects the eye focuses most of the light coming into the eye photoreactive keratectomy (PRK) and laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): vision; improving techniques that make small incisions in the cornea to change the focus in the eye. Aqueous humor: visual later below cornea clear, watery fluid that is continually replenished supplies nourishment to the eye Pupil: hole through which light from the visual image enters the interior of the eye Iris: round muscle (the colored part of the eye) in which the pupil is located can change the size of the pupil, letting more or less light into the eye helps focus the image Lens: another clear structure behind the iris, suspended by muscles finishes the focusing process begun by the cornea Visual accommodation: the change in the thickness of the lens as the eye focuses on objects that are far away or close People lose this ability as the lens hardens through aging (presbyopia) Vitreous humor: jellylike fluid that also nourishes the eye and gives it shape Nearsightedness, or myopia the shape of the eye causes the focal point to fall short of the retina Farsightedness, or hyperopia the focus point is behind the retina Retina, Rods, and Cones Retina: final stop for light in the eye contains three layers: o ganglion cells o bipolar cells o photoreceptors that respond to various light waves Rods: visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of light Cones: visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina Responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision Blind spot: area in the retina where the axons of the three layers of retinal cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve; insensitive to light How the Eye Works Dark adaption: the recovery of the eye’s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights night blindness Light adaption: the recovery of the eye’s sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness Color Vision Trichromatic theory: theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green Opponentprocess theory: theory of color vision that proposes four primary colors with cones arranged in pairs: red and green, blue and yellow afterimages: images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of thalamus Color Blindness Monochrome colorblindness: a condition in which a person’s eyes either have no cones or have cones that are not working at all Redgreen colorblindness: either the red or green cones are not working Sexlinked inheritance gene for colordeficient vision is recessive Sound Wavelength: interpreted as frequency or pitch (high, medium, or low) Amplitude: interpreted as volume (how loud or soft) Purity: interpreted as timbre (richness in the tone of the sound) Hertz (HZ): cycles or waves per second, a measurement of frequency Structure of the Ear Auditory canal: short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum Eardrum: thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle par4t of the ear when sound waves hit the eardrum, it vibrate Cochlea: snailshaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid Organ of Corti: rests in the basilar membrane contains receptor cells for sense of hearing Auditory nerve receives neural message from the organ of Corti Theories of Pitch Pitch psychological experience of sound that corresponds the frequency of the sound waves higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches Place theory; theory of pitch that states that different pitches are experienced by the stimulation of hair cells in different Frequency theory; theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane Volley principle: theory of pitch that states that frequencies from about 400 Hz up to about 4000 Hz cause the hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern, or take turns in firing. Types of Hearing Impairments Conduction hearing impairment can result from: damaged eardrum: would prevent sound waves from being carried into the middle ear properly damage to the bones of the middle ear: sounds cannot be conducted from the eardrum to the cochlea Nerve hearing impairment can result from: damage in the inner ear damage in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain Surgery to Help Restore Hearing Cochlear implant: a microphone implanted just behind the ear that picks up sound from the surrounding environment speech processor selects and arranges the sound picked up by the microphone implant Taste Taste buds taste receptor cells in mouth; responsible for sense of taste Gustation the sensation of taste Five basic tastes sweet sour Smell Olfaction (olfactory sense) sense of smell Olfactory bulbs areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells At least 1,00 olfactory receptors Somesthetic Senses Somesthetic sense: the body senses consisting of the skin sense, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular sense “soma”: body “esthetic”: feeling Skin sense: the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain sensory receptors in the skin gatecontrol theory: pain signals must pass through a “gate” located in the spinal cord (brain no feeling Hannibal character was eating a guy’s brain and he felt nothing) Kinesthetic sense: sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other proprioceptive receptors (proprioceptors) Vestibular sense: the sensations of movement, balance, and body position Sensory conflict theory: an explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eyes conflicts with the information from the vestibular senses results in dizziness, nausea, and other physical discomforts Perception and Constancies Perception the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion Size constancy the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance. Shape constancy the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina Brightness constancy the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change Gestalt Principles Figureground the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background Reversible figures visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reverse Proximity tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping Similarity tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group Closure tendency to complete figures that are incomplete Continuity tendency to perceive things a simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, brokenup pattern Contiguity tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related Development of Perception Depth perception: the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions Monocular Cues Monocular Cues (pictorial depth cues): cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only linear perspective: the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other relative size: perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away overlap: the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer aerial (atmospheric) perspective: the haziness that surrounds objects that are father away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as great texture gradient: the tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer **** motion parallax: the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away accommodation: as a monocular clue, the brain’s use of information about the changing thickness of the lens of the eye in response to looking at objects that are close or far away Binocular Cues Binocular cues: cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes convergence: the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object, resulting binocular disparity: the difference in images between the two eyes, which is greater Perceptual Illusions Herman grid Muillerlyer illusion Moon illusion: the moon on the horizon appears to be larger than the moon in the sky apparent distance hypothesis Illusions of motion autokinetic effect: a small, stationary light in a darkened room will appear to move or drift because there are no surrounding cues to indicate that the light is not moving stroboscopic motion: seen in motion pictures, in which a rapid series of still pictures will appear to be in motionfdsv chjkdioapvjdeopkvjcb Ames Room Illusion Factors that Influence Perception Perceptual set (perceptual expectancy): the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions A features into a unified whole Bottomup processing: the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception Chapter 4 Consciousness A person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment Waking consciousness State in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and the person feels alert. Altered state of consciousness state in which there is a shift in the quality of pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness Necessity of Sleep Circadian rhythm: a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a twentyfourhour period “circa” Hypothalamus: tiny section of the brain that influences the glandular system superchiasmatic nucleus o deep within the hypothalamus o the internal clock that ells people when to wake up and fall asleep Hypothalamus tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin melatonin makes a person feel sleepy Microsleeps: brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds Sleep deprivation: any significant loss of sleep results in irritability and problems with concentration Adaptive theory: theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active Restorative theory: theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage Brain Wave Patterns Electroencephalograph (EEG) allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered o Alpha waves: brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep o Theta waves: brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep o Delta waves: long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep Stages of Sleep Rapid eye movement (REM): stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream NREM (nonREM) sleep: any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM N1 (R&K Stage 1): light sleep may experience: o Hypnagogic images: hallucinations or vivid visual events o Hypnic jerk: knees, legs, or whole body jerks N2( R&K Stage 2): sleep spindles N3 (R&K Stages 3 and 4) : delta waves pronounced deepest stage of sleep: 50 percent or more of waves are delta waves body at lowest level of functioning time at which growth occurs REM Sleep and Dreaming REM sleep is paradoxical sleep (high level of brain activity) f wakened during REM sleep, sleepers almost always report a dream REM rebound: increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights Sleep Disorders Nightmares bad dreams occurring during REM sleep REM behavior disorder mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails allows the person to thrash around, or even get up and act out nightmares Stage Four Sleep Disorders Sleepwalking (somnambulism) episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep occurs in deep sleep more common among children than adults Night terrors the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep doesn’t wake fully relatively rare disorder Can sleepwalking be a defense against criminal charges? Kenneth Parks case Scott Falater case Brian Thomas case Problems During Sleep Insomnia: the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, o get a good quality of sleep Sleep apnea: disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) Narcolepsy: sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone ******Enuresis nonsomatic cause for urinating when you’re not supposed to Dreams Freud: dreams as wish fulfillment manifest content: the dream itself latent content: the true, hidden meaning of a dream Activationsynthesis hypothesis: dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the brain stem’s activation of cortical cells during REM sleep periods Activationinformationmode model (AIM) revised version of the activationsynthesis explanation of dreams information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams Hypnosis Hypnosis: state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion Four elements of hypnosis: hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said person is told to relax and feel tired hypnotist tells the person to “let go” and accept suggestions easily person is told to use vivid imagination Hypnotic susceptibility: degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject Examples of items that would appear on a hypnotic susceptibility scale *** Hypnosis Can Hypnosis Cannot Create amnesia for whatever happens Give people superhuman strength during the hypnotic session, at least for a brief time Relieve pain by allowing a person to Reliably enhance memory remove conscious attention from pain Alter sensory perceptions Regress people back to childhood Help people relax in situations that normally would cause them stress, such as flyin Theories of Hypnosis ****Hypnosis as dissociation: hypnosis works only in a person’s immediate consciousness, while a hidden “observer” remained aware of all that was going on Socialcognitive theory of hypnosis: people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but merely playing the role expected of them in the situation. Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs: drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory Physical dependence: tolerance; more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect withdrawal: physical symptoms resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems o Can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure Psychological dependence: the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing Stimulants Stimulants: drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system amphetamines: drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature cocaine: natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure nicotine: active ingredient in tobacco caffeine: the simulant found in coffee, tea, most soda, chocolate, and even many overthecounter drugs Depressants Depressants: drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system barbiturates: depressant drugs that have a sedative benzodiazepines: drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress rohypnol: the “date rape” drug Alcohol Alcohol: the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter often mistaken for a stimulant, alcohol is actually a CNS depressant Blood Alcohol Level **** Narcotics Narcotics opiumrelated drugs suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous systems natural receptor sites for endorphins o Opium: substance made from the opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derived o Morphine: narcotic drug derived from opium Hallucinogens Psychogenic Drugs drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication o Hallucinogens: drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception o Psychogenic Drugs MDMA (Ecstasy or X): designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects Stimulatory hallucinogenic: drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
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