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History Week 4 Notes

by: Kenzie Busick

History Week 4 Notes History 151

Kenzie Busick
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

America progressing: rise of strikes, square deal, gospel of wealth, environmental hazards
Clara Keyt
Class Notes
Gospel of wealth, strikes, square deal, bacteriology, environmental hazards in america




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 151 at Colorado State University taught by Clara Keyt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see 151 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
History Week 4 02/08/2016 ▯ Unions and strikes caused by:  Prolonged depressions in 1873 and 1893: 2 million with no jobs (18% unemployment rate)  Deskilled artisans, loss of independence  1890: McKinley Tarif- raised taxes higher than ever  Lavish displays of wealth and ignoring poverty: before, wealthy had helped the poor ▯ Labor takes a stand:  Unions began to form as a result of un-met expectations o Molly McGuires  Very first labor unions to form in secret in the East  Group of Irish-American co-workers  The name honored Irish citizens  Murder 12 English managers  Represents the first red scare (the fear of communism or anarchism) o American Federation of Labor  The first federation of labor unions (provides a National voice)  Significant because there was just individual unions, but this was an organization that oversees and assists all of the unions  Operated to establish a solid wage o International Workers of the World (The Wobblies)  Formed by the lowest paid workers in America  Alternative to the American Federation of Labor  Formed from everybody excluded from the AFL  All genders and all ethnicities (appeal to poor people)  Among the worst treated in America-> little to lose and a lot to gain  Eventually trickled out and had to go underground because of the red scare ▯ Marry Harris “Mother” Jones & Terrance Powderly  Operate through word of mouth  Terrance Powderly- publicly calling for fair wages (minimum wage) o Led the Knights of Labor  Mother Jones became the most prominent woman union organizer  Was called the most dangerous woman in America because she was so successful at organizing mine groups and their families  She organized children’s marches ▯ Pullman Strike  George Pullman o Founded the Pullman railroad car company o Manufactured sleeper cars (RV)  Pay cut causes workers to go on strike  Every train associated with Pullman stops  After the strike, Grover Cleveland tries to placate workers and creates Labor Day ▯ Square Deal  Fair and honest transaction  Roosevelt gave workers 9 hour work days and a 10% pay raise o Makes it a law  Changes business in America overnight  First time the federal government intervened – Roosevelt says that businesses and workers have to work together  Expedition Act- cannot limit competition, starts breaking up monopolies o If you sue someone under an anti-monopoly law your case will go to the top of the court o Concerned with breaking up monopolies ▯ Inventions  steel o Revolutionized the ways cities were built o Home insurance company building was the first “sky scraper/high rise” o Only took two years to build  Street cars were powered by electricity o Middle class able to isolate themselves from urban poverty  Urban poverty becomes horrific o People living in tenements and they become hot beds of epidemics  Conveyer belt ▯ Gospel of Wealth  The new religion  Wealth is not bad- it’s a sign of gods approval  Christian duty to accumulate wealth  Social Darwinism o If you work hard God will smile on you and you will be successful  Wealthy and middle class allowed them selves to be separated because.. o It justified their own hard work o Justifies their circumstances of birth o Justifies the larger culture they live in (promoted racism and discrimination) ▯ Environmental hazards  Pittsburg fog  Contaminated water from draining sewage into rivers etc  By the 19 hundreds the sanitation was better than Europe o Sanitation engineers o Only 6% of people had a filtered water system o Believed water would clean itself (natural itineration) Age of Miasma (colonial-1880)  Believed in natural processes would clean up rivers and one could limit disease by limiting exposure to “bad air”  Thought disease was linked with filth ▯ Bacteriology (1880-1945)  Can cure disease rather than prevent it is a new way of thinking  Emergence of Germ Theory o Some diseases are caused by microorganisms o Incredibly controversial when it comes out  Louis Pasteur o Involved in the pasteurization of milk  Robert Koch o he replicated and proved Germ Theory and that germs cause disease  Drinking water becomes the primary problem that needed to be dealt with over sewage o First time cities take on the responsibility for clean drinking water o Places public health on the tax base o Sand filtration system is developed  Gets out 99% of bacteria  1890- chlorine to purify water ▯ William Tweed  Wanted to make quick money  Cities began taking over public works projects  Bought out swampy land-> installed utilities the city paid for-> turned around and sold it for a much higher price  Gave many people jobs (manure inspector)  Kick backs o Essentially robbing the tax payers o Patronage system o If you win the election, Tweed will give you kick backs  Tamany Hall- the most famous political machine  Swindled 200 million of tax payers dollars through kick backs  Tweed was also known for murder and harassment o May have had a hand in the assassination of James Garfield  Eventually gets arrested and dies in federal prison Thomas Nast  Known as the father of American cartoons  Founded the symbol of Uncle Sam and the symbols for the Republican/Democratic party  Cartoons were a good way to get the point across to people because many were illiterate  Muckraker: someone who works for the newsroom digging up dirt on people o Ended up being the downfall of Tweed  Yellow journalism: what they are writing- has little to no legitimate facts  People began copying Nast o Upton Sinclair- wrote books, wrote for unfair conditions of workers, and expose the evils of capitalism o Wrote about meat farms- “The Jungle”-> Roosevelt read it and was appalled and passed the Federal Meat Inspection Act in 1906 (meant cannot contain formaldehyde or borax) 3 Facets of Progressivism  New purpose of government o For the first time in history large groups of lower class people confronted to government to change  New government policies/ institutions o FDA and Meat Inspection Act  Methods of achieving new policies, purposes, and institutions (agitation) ▯ Robert Follette  Correct issues of corrupt politics  Wisconsin idea: suggested the people pick for who should run for office rather than the parties, term limits, secret ballots  Pendleton Act: addresses jobs given as rewards for politicians o Introduced the ideas of qualifications for government jobs ▯ ▯


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