PSYS 371 WEEK FIVE
PSYS 371 WEEK FIVE PSYS 371
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin@BSU on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Rohrer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
PSYS 371 Notes 2/8/16 Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement Effectiveness is influenced by the strength & variety of the backup reinforcers It’s True!!! Variety is the Spice of Life!!! And, as it turns out: variety is the key to conditioned reinforcement The greater the variety of reinforcers, the greater power the backup reinforcer has How does this relate to socioeconomics? What is the relevancy for understand poverty? What is the relevancy for “C” students? o Poverty: these people either didn’t try or didn’t have many options The poorer you are means you have less variety for reinforcers o Backup reinforcer: paying attention in class Good grades = graduate Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Reinforcers Intrinsic: within the individual, selfmotivation o Ex: joy, satisfaction, inner peace Extrinsic: from the outside, from others or the environment o Ex: all secondary reinforcers, paycheck Question: How Intrinsic is Intrinsic? You will need to sort this out…because you will be challenged by other who say “I don’t think we should reward behavior he/she should be doing anyway.” Are satisfaction, happiness, joy, inner peace actually unconditioned reinforcers? By definition, if they actually were conditioned, then, at some level, they are extrinsically related Does getting paid for your job reduce the joy your job brings you? o If you volunteered for the job previously then got paid, it will reduce the joy Ex: is it going to be on the test? Natural Reinforcers Happens naturally in environment (i.e. natural consequences “extrinsic”) Natural reinforcers are not the same as intrinsic reinforcers Goal: generalization to natural reinforcers Ex: don’t show up for work = fired Ex: don’t study for the test = bad grade Chapter 6 Extinction What is Extinction? Extinction is the reversal of positive reinforcement Extinction is the removal of the reinforcer The reinforcer already has to be there (why are they doing this behavior?) Is no really no, the behavior will change o Ex: physical stress if consuming product (lactose intolerant/ gluten) Why Does Extinction Work? For the same reason positive reinforcement works. We are motivated to get our needs met, and we learned that a given reinforcer will meet our needs. So, if our behavior is the trip we take to get to the reward once there is no longer a reward there is no longer a need for the trip Ex: Would you continue to work if you did not get paid (complete removal of the reinforcer) How Does Extinction Work? By removing the reinforcer (reward), you will discontinue the behavior, but you must know for certain you will not get the reinforcer, so once the reinforcer is withdraen it must stay gone!!! Otherwise you will actually be increasing the problem behavior Ex: candy (when it’s gone it has to stay gone) Here’s the Problem And it’s a big problem!!! Most behavior are learned through intermittent reinforcement schedules, Sometimes you get the reward, sometimes you don’t Intermittent reinforcement is the strongest, most powerful reinforcement schedule, Once learned, it is VERY hard to unlearn It doesn’t matter whether the behavior is desirable or undesirable that behavior is firmly rooted if it was reinforce on an intermittent Extinction Techniques Good news/bad news: there is only one extinction technique the total removal of the reinforcer!! Unfortunately, it sounds easier than it is o Ex: screaming child in grocery store Some helpful strategies: state the rules, use a combination of extinction & positive reinforcement, don’t ever give in! And Another Big Problem It will get worse before it gets better It’s called an “extinction burst” o It’s all about withdrawal o Once behavior gets worse, you know strategy is working (the last stand) And There Is One More Big Problem It’s called a “spontaneous recover” (relapse) o Every once and awhile there will be a test to see if the reinforcer has returned o If it has: game over! In spontaneous recovery, what is recovering? o Behavior trying to remove Something in environment that triggers response Ex: social drinkers: AA works with social support (has to meet some need) 2/10/16 Extinction & Positive Reinforcement What are the benefits of a combination of techniques? o Remember: the original motive still needs to be satisfied So, helping the individual (or yourself) to find another path to motivate satisfaction is the key to success And that is where positive reinforcement of a more desirable behavior that satisfies the original motive comes into play! Alternate Influences How do they affect extinction? –They mess it up! Great Examples of Extinction/ Consequences Refer to Tables 61 (pg 53) & 62 (pg 59) in the text Intermittent Reinforcement Continuous vs. Intermittent It makes no sense! Continuous Reinforcement should be the most potent! o So why isn’t it? Work harder for unseen reinforcement Ex: Eating at a restaurant often = get tired of it, eating at a restaurant less = great! Ch 8 Developing Behavioral Persistence with Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) Variable Ratio (VR) Fixed Interval (FI) Variable Interval (VI) Fixed Interval with Limited Hold (FI/LH) Variable Interval with Limited Hold (VI/LH) Fixed Duration (FD) Variable Duration (VD) Predictability Predictability of the reinforcer Fixed: it’s predictable o Ex: test every other week in this class Variable: not predictable o More unpredictable, better behavior will be o Ex: questionable attendance Ratio The amount of something “frequency” o What level are you being reinforced? Fixed Ratio: FR, continuous reinforcement schedule (FRI = CRF) Piece rate pay: FRI (pay for every piece) Variable Ratio: VR, you don’t know how many times you have to perform the behavior Interval The time between how often you get reward Fixed: you know how much time is inbetween Variable: you don’t know how much time is inbetween Limited Hold How long is the reward going to be available? FI/LH: you know how much time you have for lunch VI/LH: you don’t know when it’s come & how long it’ll last Duration The length of time you have to do it “lasting the longest” Fixed: you know how long you have to do it Variable: you don’t know how long you have to do it
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