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BSC 116 Lecture 8

by: Paola Araque

BSC 116 Lecture 8 BSC 116

Paola Araque
GPA 3.29

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These notes cover the lecture about Plant Interaction and Reproduction
Principles Biology II
Dr. Cherry
Class Notes
Principles of Biology II
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Araque on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cherry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Plant Interaction and Reproduction    ● Soils: the source of plant nutrition  ○ organic components:  ■ humus: organic matter produced by decomposition  ■ supports diverse communities of bacteria, fungi, protists, insects, other  invertebrates, and plant roots  ○ inorganic components:  ■ negative soil particles  ■ positively charged cations  ■ negatively charged anions (susceptible to leaching)  ■ 1. roots acidify the soil solution  ■ 2. CO2 reacts with H20  ■ 3. Mineral cations are released, displaced by H+  ■ 4. roots absorb released cations  ■ mineral cations enter soil solution by cation exchange  ● Plants require essential nutrients  ○ 17 essential nutrients required to complete the life cycle  ○ 9 macronutrients needed in large amounts  ○ Plant nutrition often involves mutualistic relationships with other organisms  ● Partners: rhizobacteria & endophytes  ○ rhizobacteria mutualistic bacteria in the rhizosphere  ○ endophytes:​ bacteria or mycorrhizal fungi that live in or between root cells  ○ plants provide carbohydrates  ○ rhizobacteria and endophytes:  ■ make nutrients more available  ■ produce their own antibiotics  ■ absorb toxic metals   ■ secrete chemicals to stimulate growth  ● Plants and Bacteria Work Together in the N Cycle:  ○ bacteria help plants acquire nitrogen  ■ plants cannot use N2 in the atmosphere  ■ instead they use NH4+ and NO3­  ■ nitrate and nitrogenous organic compounds are exported from the xylem to  the shoot system  ● Legumes and Rhizobium Have Special Symbiosis:  ○ Rhizobium forms root nodules: swellings where nitrogen fixation occurs  ○ Legumes (peas, beans, peanuts, alfalfa)   ● Plant Fungi Partnerships: mycorrhizae  ○ plant supplies carbohydrates  ○ fungus aids in absorption of water and minerals  ● Some Plants Gain Water in Other Ways  ○ epiphytes:grow on other plants; absorb rainwater, etc  ○ parasitic plantmany with roots that functihaustori (similar to  arbuscular mycorrihzae)  ○ carnivorous plants​et nitrogen from animals  ● Angiosperms haveflowers​ruits and seeds  ○ Flowers: 4 rings of specialized leaves (sporophylls)   ■ petal, sepal, (sterile)  ■ carpel, stamen (fertile)  ○ complete flowers have all 4 floral organs  ○ incomplete flowers lack 1 or more of the organs  ● Double​Fertilization: pollen  ○ anthers have 4 microsporangia= pollen sacs  ■ microsporocytes (2n) undergo meiosis= 4 microspores (n)  ■ generative cell + tube cell+ spor​ollen grain  ■ generative cell has two sperm  ■ tube cell= pollen tube  ● DoubleF​ertilization: embryo sac  ○ ovaries have ovules with a megasporangium  ■ megasporocyte (2n) undergoes meiosis= 4 megaspores (n)  ■ nucleus of surviving megaspore divides 3x= 8 nuclei  ○ female gametophyte= embryo sac  ■ 3 cells at micropyle: egg and 2 synergids  ■ 3 cells at the other end: antipodal cells  ■ 2 polar nuclei without membranes in large central cell  ● Double​F​rtilization: fertilization   ○ pollen attaches to stigma  ○ tube cell forms pollen tube that grows downward  ○ generative cell produces 2 sperm  ○ pollen tube penetrates micropyle  ○ 1 sperm fertilizes egg= embryo (2n)  ○ 1 sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei in central cell= endosperm (3n)  ● Angiosperm Life Cycle: see powerpoint  ● Embryo Development: eudicots  ○ endosperm develops before embryo:  ■ (3n nucleus divides→multinucleate cell)  ○ zygote develops into embryo:  ○ basal cell→suspensor; anchored in parent  ○ terminal cell→proembryo  ○ two cotyledons (“seed leaves”) develop cotyledons  ○ shoot and root apices develop shoot apex and root apex  ● Mature Seeds Capable of Dormancy:  ○ eudicots: 2 cotyledons  ■ hypocotyl connects to radicle; epicotyl connects to embryonic shoot  ■ some with thick cotyledons and no endosperm  ■ some have thin cotyledons and more endosperm  ○ monocots: 1 cotyledon (scutellum)  ■ coleorhiza surrounds embryonic root  ■ coleoptile surrounds embryonic shoot  ● Seed Germination  ○ imbibition: uptake of water  ■ causes expansion, rupturing seed coat  ■ enzymes digest and mobilize stored nutrients  ○ eudicots:   ■ radicle emerges first, hypocotyl once above soil, epicotyl expands 1st  leaves  ○ monocots:   ■ coleoptile emerges and shoot grows through it  ● Ovaries Become Fruits: simultaneous seed and fruit development triggered by double  fertilization   ○ simple fruits: from single (or multiple fused) carpels  ○ aggregate fruits: from flowers with multiple, separate carpels  ○ multiple fruits: from multiple flowers in an inflorescence; ovary walls fuse  ○ accessory fruits: incorporates other floral parts besides the ovaries  ● Asexual Reproduction: Vegetative Shoots  ○ fragmentation: parent plant severed   ○ adventitious shoots: e.g., aspen groves    ○ apomixis: seeds produced by mitosis; no fertilization  ○ Pros: Doesn’t require a partner No fragile seedling stage Pass along parent’s  genetic info   ○ Cons: Pass along parent’s genetic info Self‐fertilization ‐ Same cons Avoid by self  incompatability or separating male and female flower parts  ● Human Modification of Plants:  ○ help plants out by:   ■ providing pollinators for crops  ■ inoculating with mycorrhizae   ■ rotating crops to replenish nitrogen   ○ modify plants by:  ■ artificial selection: selective breeding  ■ bioengineering (GMO)  ○ possible down­sides of biotechnology  ■ human health  ■ effects on nontarget organisms  ■ transgene escape (hybridization)  


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