Intro to Social Psych Notes
Intro to Social Psych Notes PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Conformity • A change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagined group pressure ◦ Acceptance - conforming while really believing in the act ◦ Compliance - conforming without really believing in the act ◦ Obedience - complying as the result of a demand Suggestibility: two fb experiments • 1 emotional contagion study ◦ Positive and negative emotions manipulated in • 7000000 ppl's newsfeeds ◦ Very small effect toward negativity ◦ Wanted to know if they manipulated info that showed up in ppl's newsfeed if it changed ppl's emotions ◦ Would you be more likely to make pos or neg posts if you saw one of those ◦ No informed consent • 2 2010 fb election day study ◦ Millions ◦ Group a: saw "today is election day" message and photos of friends who voted ◦ Group b: saw "today is election day" message only ◦ Group c: saw no message ◦ Would it make you more likely to vote • How many ppl that clicked a button to say they voted • More likely to vote with the group a • 340000 ppl voted as a result of this experiment - 280000 from the contagion effect Mass hysteria • In august 2009, mark saylor and three fam members were driving on a san diego coutny freeway • Their car accelerated, reaching more than 100 mp for about a min • Eventually it crashed and exploded into ﬂames • Everyone was killed • Before wreck occurred, how often did ppl call in without complaints only 21 for 10 years, ﬁrst half of 2009 there were 9 ﬁrst half of 2010 651 • How often did ther term "unintended acceleration" appear in news stories • From 1986 until crash about 90 stories with toyota acceleration and intended or unintended • After were 800 • This hysteria was not driven by uneducated ppl, by mentally ill ppl, or ppl inclined to believe in conspiracy theories • During congressional testimony, secretary of transportation ray lahood said that owners of toyotas should stop driving them • This event show how susceptible we are, as humans, to this kind of inﬂuence and conformity • Reason for acceleration was ﬂoor matt • Informational inﬂuence Mimicry: the chameleon effect (chartrand and abrgh) • Imitation can be nonconscious • Ppl like those who mimic them • Ppl who are high in empathy are the most likely to mimic Sherif's autokinetic study • Autokinetic effect is an illusion • Dot in middle in dark room; dot didn't move; they asked how far the dot moved • Ppl were asked how far the light moved • Then they were in a group and not individual and at the end they determined it moved 2 inches; ppl adjusted with group norm • One year later - ppl were still inﬂuenced by the group norm • Demonstrates informational inﬂuence Asch's line conformity study • Standard line vs comparison lines • Experimental condition - ppl in a group; actual participant was giving response last, listen to three or four ppl that would say answer was 1 (out of three) • 30% ppl would conform to wrong group norm • Normative inﬂuence Two types of conformtiy • Informational inﬂuence : conformity occuring when ppl accept evidence about reality provided by other ppl • Normative inﬂuence: conformity based on a person's desire to fulﬁl others' expectations, often to gain acceptance Wht do we conform? • Informational inﬂuence ◦ Desire to be accurate ◦ Results in private acceptance • True acceptance • Change behavior and mind • Normative inﬂuence ◦ Desire to fulﬁll other's expectations ◦ Results in public conformity • Superﬁcial change in ebhavior • No opinion change Pressures to conform • Neg conseq. Of deviating from social norms • Need to belong is a fundamental human need (evolutionary perspective) • Rejection and conformity (janes and olson) ◦ Video of comedian: makes fun of other person (social rejection), makes fun of self, jokes not directed at anyone ◦ Measure participants conformity in separate video task ◦ Seeing others experience rejection increases conformity Factors that inﬂuence conformity • Group size - as size of group increases, conformity increases (but plateaus at groups of 3) ◦ Social impact theory: ppl we are close to have more impact than those who are more distant ◦ Cohesion : "togetherness" or "we" feeling of group • Standing alone ("lone deviant") - other dissenters decreases conformity • Status - conform to high status ppl more • Gender - women more likely to conform than men • Age - adolescents more likely to conform than children and older adults Pluralistic ignorance and conformity • A false impression of what most other ppl are thinking, feeling or doiing • Prentice and miller ◦ Most students overestimate how comf peers are with campus drinking ◦ Those who most overestimated conformed more ◦ Correcting misperceptions decreased alch consumption Minority inﬂuence • Process in which a small number of ppl in a group lead to overall change the group's attitude or behavior ◦ Consistency, persistence, ingroup member, open - minded • Majority inﬂuence vs minority inﬂuence ◦ Majority: operates through normative and informational inﬂuence • More likely to result in public conformity ◦ Minority: operates almost exclusively through informational inﬂuence • More likely to result in private conformity (acceptance) Milgram's classic obedience research • Studying "effects of punishment on learning" • P learns he will be "teacher" • P's job is to administer shocks of increasing intensity (15v-450v) when confederate makes a mistake • At 150 v c refuses to go on • At 330 v c falls silent • How many ppl go on to 450 v? ◦ 67% • Ppl less likely to obey with background info on conformity Compliance • Conforming to an expectation or request iwthout really believing what you are doing • What makes people more likely to comply? ◦ Surprise • C going to library and walk to a line to make copies (in a rush, no reason, need to make copies) %0•9 %0•6 %0•9 ◦ Similarity • More likely to reply with request from ppl who are similar to us than from ppl who are dissimilar ▪ Trivial similarties ▪ C said same bday, or different bday • Asked them to look over an 8 page english paper • More likely with same bday ◦ Norm of reciprocity • We treat others as they have treated us ▪ Ex: coke study • Free coke before give rafﬂe tickets, free coke, nothing • When ppl go free coke and asked them to buy rafﬂe tickets they're more likely to buy ▪ Servers who write "thank you" or give out candy • Receiving something makes us think we should comply with request
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