Ethics Week 4
Ethics Week 4 PHIL-21001-009
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL-21001-009 at Kent State University taught by Frank L. Scalambrino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Intro to Ethics Week 4 Tuesday Socratic Schools Skepticism o Someone who doubts o Doubt the intellectual understanding o Control “the animal” by using doubt o Live the good life by doing this Stoicism o Freedom by the animal soul o Use of acceptance o Accepting ones faith o To be free: try to neither pursue or run away from anything Accept things as they are Cynicism o Believes what is good is the rejection of what others think is good o When someone thinks something good they reject it o Do not live a life of slavery- be a completely free person Hedonism o Lower Experience as much pleasure as possible Experience pleasure as often as possible o Higher Avoid pursuing bodily pleasures Can become overly tolerant Pursue your higher pleasures Charity, caring for others, thinking, etc. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Invented by Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis o Took it from Encoridian Does the good life require emotion? Not things that upset you but the opinions on them Cannot keep your will with nature if what happens upsets you, if you weren’t expecting it to happen o When something other than what you expected happens do not let it upset you Should not honor someone so much as to let them determine your mood Tolerate the problem or find the best way out of the problem Thursday Divine Command Theory Morally right means Morally wrong means condemned Number of ways to criticize it Ways to criticize it Socratic challenge o Is conduct right because God commands it or does God command it because it is right? o Might mean it is right just because God commands it o But this leads to trouble because it leads God’s commands to be arbitrary This can easily lead you to trouble o “God is good” loses meaning if God defines what is good o God commands us to do certain things because they are right This means God loses his power, the middleman between yourself and what goodness really is Interpretations of scriptures o Everybody can interpret them differently Natural Law Theory Aristotle suggests there are 4 laws o Material and efficient Laws override o Formal and final cause have to do with purpose and function Can call in a different interpretation of nature Legal positivism o Can take different positions on things o Can posit any law we want and it can be legitimate as long as it goes through the process necessary to become a real law The function is in the service of procreation o The natural law’s purpose of marriage is reproduction Is/Ought Fact/norm (normative) Laws of nature describe how things are and how they ought to be Just because there is, does not mean there should (ought to) be