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Ethics Week 4

by: Layne Henwood

Ethics Week 4 PHIL-21001-009

Layne Henwood
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Week four notes from February 9th and 11th
Introduction to Ethics
Frank L. Scalambrino
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL-21001-009 at Kent State University taught by Frank L. Scalambrino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Intro to Ethics Week 4 Tuesday Socratic Schools  Skepticism o Someone who doubts o Doubt the intellectual understanding o Control “the animal” by using doubt o Live the good life by doing this  Stoicism o Freedom by the animal soul o Use of acceptance o Accepting ones faith o To be free: try to neither pursue or run away from anything  Accept things as they are  Cynicism o Believes what is good is the rejection of what others think is good o When someone thinks something good they reject it o Do not live a life of slavery- be a completely free person  Hedonism o Lower  Experience as much pleasure as possible  Experience pleasure as often as possible o Higher  Avoid pursuing bodily pleasures  Can become overly tolerant  Pursue your higher pleasures  Charity, caring for others, thinking, etc. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)  Invented by Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis o Took it from Encoridian  Does the good life require emotion?  Not things that upset you but the opinions on them  Cannot keep your will with nature if what happens upsets you, if you weren’t expecting it to happen o When something other than what you expected happens do not let it upset you  Should not honor someone so much as to let them determine your mood  Tolerate the problem or find the best way out of the problem Thursday Divine Command Theory  Morally right means  Morally wrong means condemned  Number of ways to criticize it Ways to criticize it  Socratic challenge o Is conduct right because God commands it or does God command it because it is right? o Might mean it is right just because God commands it o But this leads to trouble because it leads God’s commands to be arbitrary  This can easily lead you to trouble o “God is good” loses meaning if God defines what is good o God commands us to do certain things because they are right  This means God loses his power, the middleman between yourself and what goodness really is  Interpretations of scriptures o Everybody can interpret them differently Natural Law Theory  Aristotle suggests there are 4 laws o Material and efficient Laws override o Formal and final cause have to do with purpose and function  Can call in a different interpretation of nature  Legal positivism o Can take different positions on things o Can posit any law we want and it can be legitimate as long as it goes through the process necessary to become a real law  The function is in the service of procreation o The natural law’s purpose of marriage is reproduction Is/Ought  Fact/norm (normative)  Laws of nature describe how things are and how they ought to be  Just because there is, does not mean there should (ought to) be


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