Intro to Entomology; WEEK 3 Notes
Intro to Entomology; WEEK 3 Notes ENTO 2010
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Popular in Entomology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Thalidomide Thalidomide was given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness. In 1962, Thalidomide was shown to cause birth defects. The placenta does not protect the fetus from chemicals. Now, Thalidomide is being used to treat leprosy. Capton is a probable carcinogenic. It is applied to Florida strawberries. Canada has set lower tolerance levels. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Know the Pest Judiciously use pesticides Host plant resistance Biological control Know the Pest Know the life cycle of the insect. Know how it reproduces. Determine when the pest has become an actual problem. Know which stage of the insect is most susceptible. Attack the pest when it is most vulnerable. Judicious Use of Pesticides Apply pesticides when pest is present and vulnerable. Use of the “scouts” or pheromone traps to monitor the pest. Monitor environmental conditions. Use ultra low volume sprayers. Host Plant Resistance Breeding programs Introduction of resistance by crossing with “new” varieties Chemical: chemical makeup in plants that harms insects. Physical: physical components of the plant that insects don’t like Glossy texture of leaf/plant that insects can’t grip. Thorns Introduction of resistance by recombinant DNA technology. Leaves of “Wild” InsectResistant Potato plants from South America have 2 kinds of hairs: Sticky hairs that trap aphids Hairs that make “alarm pheromones” that deter aphids The goal is to breed these potatoes with domestic potato plants in order get the same effect. Host Plant Resistance –cont. For the last 50 years, seed companies did not bother to have insect resistance in their crop varieties because they would recommend a chemical pesticide instead. Now, they want host plant resistance strategies. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Most of our crop plants are not native to the U.S. There’s a search for resistance in our country. From which, scientist intend to breed resistance traits into highyield varieties. Ethical Issue Seed companies take genes from plants in third world countries. Then, they produce insectresistant plants. This brings into question if the seed companies should share their profits with these foreign countries. Biological Control Sterilization: make pest insects sterile. Can’t cause longterm problems. Beneficial insects that can control other insects. Bacteria that attack insects Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) Example: The gene B.t. was put into soybean leaves. Caterpillars on these leaves with B.t. kept moving and could not feed on them. Viruses that attack insects. Sterilization: Pest Insects Rear the insects in labs Then, they are sterilized and released into field/environment. Insects mate in the field but make no progeny. Problems with this technique: Most insects are hard to rear in a lab, and it may be difficult to make them go where you want them to once released into the environment. Beneficial Insects Parasitoids are insects whose larvae consume their hosts. Beneficial Parasitoids: parasitic wasps and parasitic flies Predators are any animals that kill and eat other animals. Beneficial Predators: preying mantis, dragonflies, paper wasps, and “spiders” (not insects technically) External Parasitoids Female wasp paralyzes its host caterpillar with venom. It then lays eggs on the outside of the caterpillar. The larvae hatch and feed on the caterpillar. Interesting Fact: The mother wasp has the ability to determine the sex of her young by choosing to either withhold sperm from the egg or not to. Fertilized eggs result in female young. Unfertilized eggs result in male young. Internal Parasitoids Female adult wasp lays eggs inside its host caterpillar. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Wasp larvae then hatch and eat the caterpillar from the inside without damaging its internal organs in order to keep the host alive. Lastly, larvae ooze out of the host and spin a cocoon. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) There are several varieties of this bacterium. Each variety is specific for one group of insects; has a specific target host. Bacteria produce toxic proteins that kill the insect. B.t. protein is not toxic to higher animals, such as humans. We, humans, actually eat this bacterium unknowingly without any personal harm done to us. Current use: Gypsy moth in North Georgia. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) –cont. The insect must eat the bacterium. The toxin destroys the insect’s stomach, and it is not slow acting. New strains of this bacterium are being sought. The bacterium is to be sprayed onto the plant’s surface so the pest insect can eat it. The bacterium works quickly so not much damage is done to the plant/crop. The caterpillar/host will become agitated and fall of the leaves. Bacillus is a genus name. Interesting Fact: Anthrax is also a Bacillus bacterium. Viruses that Attack Insects Viruses are very specific; only a few insect species are attacked by each type of virus. These viruses have no effect on higher animals. Viruses multiply in great quantities in host insect. However, these viruses act too slowly; thus, the pest, insect lives for several days after eating the virus. The negative consequence is that the insect may cause more damage to the plants/crops because the virus does not act as quickly. UGA and American Cyanamid Company Mite toxin is insectspecific. Entomologists inserted the toxin gene into the virus DNA. When the virus multiplied inside the insect, it died very quickly. The virus still has a narrow host range. So, there are no effects on humans or other animals. Also, toxins for scorpions and spiders are used to make insectspecific viruses.
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