New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Comm162 Week 6 notes

by: Erica Evans

Comm162 Week 6 notes Comm162

Erica Evans
GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes from 2/08/2016
Campaigns, Voting, Media
Shanto Iyengar
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Campaigns, Voting, Media

Popular in Communication Studies

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.


Reviews for Comm162 Week 6 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/15/16
Comm162   Class  10   2/8/2016       Framing:   • “Presentation  effect”  –  the  presentation,  and  not  the  content  affects  the   message.  Different  ‘genres’  of  news  coverage  as  frames.     • If  you  are  really  trying  to  change  their  opinions…  is  this  really  framing?  Or  is   it  persuasion?     • “Semantic  cues”  –  saying  “poor  people”  instead  of  “people  on  welfare.”  People   are  much  more  sympathetic  towards  the  poor.     • “Episodic”  vs.  “thematic”  –     • Episode  means:  here  is  the  latest  episode  of  poverty,  a  close  up  interview   with  someone.  This  is  more  likely  to  hold  the  public’s  attention.    This  is  the   dominant  form  of  broadcast  news.  Leads  to  focus  on  the  behavior  of   individuals.     • Thematic:  showing  the  trends  and  statistics.  More  removed.  Blame  is  placed   not  on  the  individual,  but  society  or  the  government.     • Druckman:  “equivalency  versus  emphasis  framing”     • A  policy  to  combat  a  disease:  Either  plan  A:  “200  people  will  be  saved”  vs.   Plan  B:  “1/3  chance  everyone  will  live  and  2/3  chance  that  no  one  will  be   saved”  …  it  is  the  same  outcome,  but  everyone  would  choose  the  second   choice.     • Or  just  change  the  words  from  “live”  to  “will  not  die”  –  People  will  chose  the   wording  that  emphasized  “living.”     • Framing  as  a  “script”  –  following  the  narrative  of  an  issue.       • News  is  always  about  violent  crime  and  never  white-­‐collar  crime.     • Reporting  about  crime  usually  unfolds  like  a  script  and  is  very  episodic.  They   give  you  information  about  a  suspect.    Race  and  gender  is  injected  into  the   story  because  they  show  you  a  picture.     • Study  where  people  saw  a  white  suspect,  black  suspect  or  no  suspect.  Even   when  people  saw  no  suspect,  40%  said  they  saw  a  black  suspect….  The  same   thing  applies  to  Muslim/middle  eastern  people  and  terrorism.     • Emphasis  framing:  If  there  is  a  student  protest,  Frame  A:  Did  these  students   have  the  right  to  protest?  Frame  B:  What  about  law  and  order.    Everyone  is   more  supportive  of  the  protest  when  they  hear  Frame  A.       Persuasion:     • Propaganda:  this  sparked  interest  in  mass  media  in  the  1940’s.  How  was   Hitler  able  to  come  to  power?     • Two  factor  model:  P  (persuasion)  =  p  (acceptance|  exposure)     • If  you’re  given  a  message,  what  is  the  likeliness  that  you  will  accept  it?     • Curvilinear  function  for  any  indicator  of  political  engagement  (information,   education,  etc.)  –  persuasion  highest  in  the  middle.  Lowest  at  the  two   extremes.     • It  is  the  moderates  that  can  be  persuaded  most.  The  people  who  don’t  care  at   all,  not  educated  at  all  will  not  change,  the  people  who  are  super  political   junkies,  super  educated  etc.  will  not  change,  but  the  people  in  the  middle  are   more  easily  persuaded.     • Strong  partisans  and  politically  attentive  remain  un-­‐persuaded  à   polarization  phenomenon.     • Message  loudness  (intensity)  and  strength  of  existing  opinion  as  conditioners   à  also  affects  persuasion.     • Credibility  is  super  important.  We  rely  on  experts  to  tell  us  what  is   important.  Expertise  and  perception  of  partisan  intent  help  us  decide  who  is   credible.  Counter-­‐attitudinal  presentations  are  the  most  credible.    If  someone   from  the  other  side  endorsed  a  candidate  that  would  be  huge!     • Possibility  to  return  to  “minimal  consequences”       Is  America  Polarized?     • Not  much  evidence  of  ideological  polarization.   • People  identify  with  groups     • Identity  automatically  produces  in  group  /  out  group  preferences     • Affective  polarization:  how  do  Reps  and  Dems  feel  about  each  other?  à  Lots   of  contempt.     • Compare  political  elites  with  ordinary  citizens  à  elites  are  completely   polarized,  but  ordinary  citizens  are  still  mostly  moderate.   • The  American  South  was  a  bastion  of  conservative  democrats  in  the  1960’s.   But  there  was  a  lot  of  ideological  conflict  within  the  party.  Overtime  the   South  got  realigned  and  became  Republican.  Party  cleavage  and  ideological   cleavage  has  become  synchronized.     • Maximalists  vs.  minimalists  à     • Conscious  awareness,  implicit  attitudes     • Take  the  Harvard  implicit  attitudes  test     • People  might  have  more  negative  views  towards  another  party  than  they  do   about  another  race  or  religion…  but  is  this  just  because  people  control  their   answers  for  political  correctness?     • No!  Evidence  shows  that  even  subconsciously,  this  divide  is  stronger  for   parties  than  anything  else.     • Dictator  Game  and  Trust  Game  tests  for  partisan  bias.  Behavioral  evidence!    


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.