Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes Biol360
Cal State Fullerton
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monique Magpayo on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol360 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Maryanne Menvielle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biology of Human Sex in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
CHAPTER 3 NOTES ANATOMY: name, description and location of structures · PHYSIOLOGY: the study of the function of physical structures · Why is it important?: · it is the foundation of many of the other topics · COURSE MOTTO: “if you do not know what you look like when you are healthy, then you are not going to know what you like unhealthy.” · Diversity is normal · PENIS- EXTERNAL ANATOMY · DEEP Dorsal vein of penis is in the middle · Dorsal artery of penis outlines the deep dorsal vein · Dorsal nerve of penis are all around and next to the dorsal vein and artery · EXTERNAL · SHAFT: length of the penis. Main part of the penis extending from the lower abs to the GLANS · GLANS: is the head of the penis. Most sensitive on the under part, the frenulum. · The base of the penis which is connected to the abdomen is frequently surrounded by pubic hair · CORONA: raised portion between shaft and glans (also called the coronal ridge) · URETHRAL MEATUS: opening in the glans. Allows urine and sperm to exit the male’s body · FRENULUM: the underside of the penis. Very dense with nerve endings. · S.C.G.UM.F analogy to help remember the order and placement on a diagram · FORESKIN (aka prepuce) is a layer of skin covering the glans and retracts during an erection. It’s a loose tubular fold of skin · CIRCUMCISION: the removal of the foreskin. The surgical removal of foreskin and can be removed at any age. Usually right after birth in the US it’s a 5-10 min procedure. · They use a PLASTIBELL during circumcision. · The clinician usually used a nerve block or other form of local anesthesia to provide pain relief. · Procedure steps on pg 71 · BOOK NOTES: PG 71 o Developmentally, the penis is equivalent to the clitoris o However, function wise, it’s the clitoris, urethra, and vagina all combined o CONTRAVERSIES ON CIRCUMCISION: Benefit- is a tenfold or greater reduction in the incidents of UTI’s in infancy. In adulthood, circumcised men enjoy partial protection from infection with several sexually transmitted viruses, circumcision facilitates hygiene. o SMEGMA: is a cheesy substance that that builds up under the foreskin and cn develop a rancid smell and taste o RISKS OF CIRCUMCISION: hemorrhage, infection, and damage to the penis o “circumcision of males represents a surgical “vaccine” against a wide variety of infections, adverse medical conditions, and potentially fatal diseases over their lifetime, and also protects their sexual partners. o SUPERINCISION: an unusual form of male circumcision in which the upper par of the foreskin is incised but not removed. (usually found in Polynesian cultures as well as parts in the Philippines) o SUBINCISION: an unusual form of circumcision in which a cut is made along the underside of the penis, exposing the urethra (found in Australian aborigines and some other cultures) o THE SHAFT OF THE PENIS CONTAINS 3 ERECTILE STRUCTRES o 2 CORPUS CAVERNOSUM- either of the two elongated erectile structures within the penis or clitoris, which also extend backward into the pelvic floor. They lie side by side and account for the bulk of the penis’s erectile capacity. The CORPORA CAVERNOSA is responsible for the rigidness of the penis during an erection. o 1 CORPUS SPONGIOSUM- a single midline erectile structure. In both sexes it fills the glans; in males it extends backward along the underside of the penis, surrounding the urethra. This also fills with blood but not as rigid o The INTERNAL STRUCTURE of the erect penis and the urethra: the CORPUS SPONGIOSUM surrounds the penile urethra and expands at the tip of the penis to form the glans. Because it lacks a tough capsule, the corpus spongiosum is less rigid when erect o ORDER OF PENIS STRUCTURE FROM BASE TO TIP (*internal anatomy) o Bladder o Prostatic urethra o Prostate gland o Bulbourethral gland o Penile Bulb- an expansion of the corpus spongiosum at the root of the penis o Crura o Shaft of penis o Corona o Glans o Urethral Opening o INSIDESE: penile urethra, corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosum o TERMS § BALANTIS: is the inflammation of glans, caused by infection and/ or poor hygiene. Common for uncircumcised men. Treatment is regular cleansings and antibiotics § PHIMOSIS is the inability to retract the foreskin far enough to expose the glans because there is a tightening of the foreskin § PARAPHIMOSIS is the entrapment of retracted foreskin behind the corona of the glans. It can occur as a result of efforts to retract a phimotic foreskin. It is an emergency condition because it can lead to tissue death of the glans § PEYRONIE’S DISEASE: is an unnatural curvature of the erect penis caused by scar formation in the corpora cavernosa- possibly as a late consequence of trauma. · PUBOCOCCYGEUS MUSCLE: assist with erection, ejaculation, and orgasm · LECTURE NOTES · PENIS Physiology · 1 role. During arousal. The erotic function of the penis · REPRODUCTIVE ROLE: delivery of semen into the female reproductive track · URINARY FUNCTION: allows semen and urine to exit the body · THE MALE ERECTION: TUMESCENCE: Biological term for erection · FOR TUMESCENCE TO OCCURà · 1. Involved the presence of nerve endings. The penis posses sensory nerve endings called sem: specialized nerve endings found in the genital area that probably detect the tactile stimulation associated with sexual activity (part of the anatomic nervous system) · 2. Blood. Blood flow within the penis helps cause a tumescence. An erect penis, the veins are squeezed shut and the arteriole opens. There is blood-filled tissues (in a flaccid penis, the veins are open, the arteriole is constricted and there are little blood in tissues · 3. CHEMICAL called NITRIC OXIDE: A dissolved gas that functions as a neurotransmitter in erectile tissue. Is used to communicate through the nervous system and the penis to allow an erection to occur by increasing the flow of blood (Viagra and other drugs that help produce erections do so by increasing the level of nitric oxide in the erectile tissue · WHEN COMPLETE ERECTION OCCURS, no additional blood can enter the coropa cavernosa, so blood flow ceases · PRIAPISM: is when an erection won’t go down. It starves the erectile tissue of oxygen and cause damaged if it is prolonged for more than a few hours · ANOTHER FACTOR MENTIONED IN THE BOOK AND NOT IN THE LECTURE THAT CONTRIBUTE TO AN ERECTION : pelvic floor muscles, including the pubococcygeus muscle. · LECTURE cont. MEDICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PENIS PRIAPISM: when an erection stays erect. This may cause damage to the erectile tissue BALANTITIS: Inflammation of the glans of the tip of the penis. Usually a change of hygiene practices is needed as well as antibiotics depending on the source of inflammation PHIMOSIS: is the inability to retract the foreskin to expose the glans. Common in children. May require surgery especially if this happens after puberty PARAPHIMOSIS which is the entrapment of the foreskin after its been retracted behind the gland. It can cut off the flow to the tissue of the glands PEYRONIE’S DISEASE: A curvature of the penis that is caused by the scarring of the capor cavernosa physically due to some physical trauma. This position results in pain and may need surgery to remove the scar tissue PENILE CANCER: very rare. Can be treated with minor surgery SCROTUM ANATOMY The term scrotum specifically refers to the skin that covers the testes SCROTUM: or scrotal sac is a loose bag of skin that hangs down behind the penis and contains the two testicles. o Contains: o TESTES: the male gonads which produce sperm and hormones such as androgens o TUNICA DARTOS: muscles lining the scrotum. The muscle lining the scrotum. o SPERMATIC CORD: two bundles of structures extending from abdomen to testis. It connects the testis to the internal organ systems. This contains nerves, blood vessels, and vas deferens, and the cremaster muscle o CREMASTER MUSCLE: covers spermatic cord and testis. Muscles that wrap around the spermatic chord and the testis contracting to pull the testis closer to the body to regulate temperature. THIS IS ALL PART OF THE CREMASTERIC REFLEX which is the body’s way to respond to temperature BOOK EPIDIDYMIS: located above and behind each testicle, through which sperm pass after elaving the testicle. The testicle and epididymis can easily be moved around within the scrotum. SPERMATIC CORD: the testicle’s lifeline. A bundle of structures that connect the testicle with several crucial organs inside the body. The spermatic cord runs through the INGUINAL CANAL which is a long tunnel through the abdominal wall in the region of the groin. A layer of muscle tissue known as the CREMASTER MUSCLE wraps the spermatic cord and forms a sling around the testicle. The cremaster contracts automatically when it responds to cold. Within the spermatic cord runs the VAS DEFERENS, the tube that carries mature sperm away from the epididymis. In addition, the spermatic cord contains arteries, veins, and nerves that supply the testicle. The internal structure of the testicle is dominated by the SEMINIFEROUS TUBES, a set of about a thousand fine, highly convoluted tubes that occupy the lobes of the testicle. The seminiferous tubules are the site of sperm production or SPERMATOGENESIS. The spaces between the tubules are occupied by INTERSTITIAL CELLS , which secrete hormones-mainly testosterone. EACH SPERM CELL is the product of a 64 day process of cell division and maturation that begins within a seminiferous tubule. The average man produces something like 150 million sperm per day After leaving the seminiferous tubules, the immature sperm travel to the epididymis. The epididymis has the shape of the letter C and is attached to the top and back surface of the testicle Sperm spend about a week traversing the tubule, during which time they become about a hundredfold more concentrated. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE TESTICLE AND EPIDIDYMIS o SPERM initially develop in the SEMINIFEROUS tubules of the testicle; they then pass to the EPIDIDYMIS, where they mature further and stored, before moving through the VAS DEFERENS to the urethra o INSIDE THE SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES: the sperm develop while embedded in the cells lining the tubules. The cells scattered between the tubules secrete sex hormones o The sperm pass from the EPIDIDYMIS into the VAS DEFERENS o Each VAS passes through the spermatic cord into the abdomen, past the bladder, and down toward the prostate gland. As it enters the prostate, each VAS joins with a short duct that adds the secretions of the seminal vesicle on that side o Thereafter, the VAS is referred to the EJACULATORY DUCT o While still within the prostate, the left and right ejaculatory ducts join the urethra, which conveys urine from the bladder. o From that junction on, the urethra serves for the passage of both urine and semen. PROSTATE GLAND: lies in the midline immediately below the bladder. It completely surrounds the urethra as it exits the bladder. The normal prostate is slightly larger than a walnut. The secretion of the prostate is a cloudy, alkaline fluid; at ejaculation, this fluid is pumped into the urethra by the contraction of muscle fivers within the gland. PROSTATITIS: inflammation of the prostate gland; may be acute or chronic CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME: an alternative, more inclusive term for chronic prostatitis BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA: noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland PROSTATE CANCER: cancer of the prostate gland PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA): an enzyme secreted by the prostate gland; its presence at high levels in the blood is suggestive of, but not diagnostic of, prostate cancer RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY: surgical removal of the entire prostate gland and local lymph nodes. LECUTRE o INSIDE THE SCROTUM o Inside the testicle: SEMINIFEROUS TUBLES- long coils of tubes which house and develop sperm o INTERSTITIAL CELLS: cells located between the seminiferous tubules and is the location for the production of various hormones o EPIDIDYMIS: located just above the testicle and the location of sperm maturation and storage. They are moved into this place for further development until ejaculation occurs o VAS DEFERNS is the tube that carries the sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct which will then release it through the urethra SPERM PRODUCTION: Average takes 64 days in order for sperm cells to be fully formed Average produced 100-700 million per day IDEAL TEMP: 7-12 degrees F below body temperature NATURAL REGULATION FOR BODY TEMP controlled by: TUNICA DARTOS CREMASTER MUSCLES and the CREMASTERIC REFLEX BEHAVIORS THAT CAN AFFECT SPERM COUNT: o Long hot baths o Prolonged hjgh fever o Sedentary jobs (truck&cab drivers, office) any time they are seated o Tight underwear o Prolonged stress BOOK NOTES The most important component of semen is the SPERM Each sperm or spermatozoon has a tadpole like structure- a head containing the cells nucleus with it’s DNA and a motile tail that propels the sperm forward. Among the components of seminal plasma are proteins, enzymes, antioxidants, water, salt, sugar fructose (which sperm can use as energy source), BUFFERS, that keep the PH of the semen alkaline between 7.2 and 7.8. THESE BUFFERS protect the sperm from the acidic environment encountered if they were deposited in the vagina. In men infected with a disease causing virus such as HIV or HEP b THESE VIRUSES map be present at high concentrations in seminal plasma EJACULATION is the forceful ejection of semen from the urethral opening Prior to ejaculation, the various components of the semen are expelled from their reservoirs-the left and right vas deferens, the prostate gland, and the seminal vesicles- into the urethra. This process is called EMISSION: the loading of the constituents of semen into the posterior urethra immediately before ejaculation EJACULATION ITSELF is caused by a series of rhythmical contractions of the muscular walls of the urethra and the pelvic floor muscles. Men’s testicles manufacture and secret 3 KINDS OF SEX HORMONES: ANDROGENS (chiefly testosterone), ESTROGENS (chiefly estradiol) and PROGESTINS (chiefly progesterone) These hormones are synthesized by the interstitial cells ANDROGENS: before birth, testosterone drives development of the fetus- especially in the fetal genitalia.- in the male direction Testosterone is responsible for puberty and for maintenance of these characteristics thereafter TESTOSTERONE acts on the brain in fetal and adult life Promotes the establishment and expression of male typical gendered traits It’s the chief hormone responsible for the maintenance of sex drive in men TESTOSTERONE is an ANABOLIC HORMONE-it promotes the buildup of tissue, especially muscle, and it increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. The anabolic effects of testosterone and related androgens are the reason that athletes of both sexes use them to promote tissue growth, including muscle development TESTOSTERONE has been converted to the more potent androgen: 5*- dihydrotestosterone (DHT) an androgen that plays an important role in the development of the male external genitalia Androgens such as testosterone and DHT strongly influence the distribution of head, body, and pubic hair in both sexes ESTROGENS: help maintain bone density in men and they also terminate the growth of limb bones after puberty. In addition, estrogens are required for male fertility: they promote the maturation and concentration of sperm in the epididymis. PROFESTINS: is a metabolic precursor for androgens and estrogens. When given as drugs, progestins lower men’s sex drive, suggesting the natural progestins may have a hormonal effect on the brain that counteracts the effect on androgens MEN’S TESTICLES are linked with the HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND by a hormonal control loop. The same hormonal messengers- GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)- play similar roles in the two sexes. GnRH, secreted by the HYPOTHALAMUS, stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland. FSH stimulates spermatogenesis in the testicles LH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of sex hormones. The male sex steroid in turn can exert negative feedback effect, damping the secretion of the hormones form the hypothalamus and pituitary Because the brain Is involved in the regulation of testicular function, life experiences can affect a man’s testosterone levels. LECTURE GLANDS: OVERVIEW These things contribute fluid to semen SEMINAL VESICLES PROSTATE BULBOURETHRAL Less than 1 percent of the ejaculation is actually sperm o SEMINAL VESICLES: have the largest contribution to the total volume of semen ranging anywhere from 65-75 percent of total volume 2 GLANDS LOCATED behind the bladder and above the prostate Their fluid contains a lot of simple sugar for SPERM MOTILITY Secretions are released from the seminal vesicle and then delivered into the ejaculatory duct to mix with the sperm that has traveled up through the vas deferens from the epididymis o PROSTATE GLAND Located below the bladder and surrounds the urethra Produces the prostaic fluid and makes up around 30 percent of semen Its white and viscous, (thicker than water) and alkaline Neutralizes vagina’s acidity. This gives the sperm a better chance of survival o BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS (the couperous (sp) glands) : these glands are about the size of peas and are located below the prostate This gland is responsible for the production of pre-ejaculatory fluid These glands secrete directly into urethra to help lubricate and neutralize it, this allows the semen to pass more smoothly through the urethra Precum is before ejaculation. Often contains live sperm o THE MALE ORGASM o Emission and ejaculation o EMISSION occurs prior to ejaculation and is the release of the fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles, Once fluid is released and the sperm have moved from the epididymis through the vas deferens most men cannot prevent ejaculation o Ejaculation is the second step and is caused by contractions of muscles DISORDER OF THE TESTICLES TESTICULAR CANCER: generally curable and strikes men in 20s and 30s. some cases may result of the surgical removal or one or more testicles EPIDIDYMITIS: the inflammation of epididymis. It could be brought on by infection like ecoli or trauma to the area. If bacterial then it can be treated by antibiotics ORCHITIS: the inflammation of the testicle by an infection. THESE 2 INFECTIONS could be results of an untreated STI VARICOCELE: The enlargement of the vein that usually drains the blood away from the testicles. If this condition is not treated it may result in the loss of fertility in the male because of the effect of blood flow to the area HYDROCELE: when fluid collects around the space surrounding the testicle. This may lead to swelling of the testicle. Many cases, fluid must be drained through a small incision TESTICULAR TORSION: the testis are twisted and cut off by their blood supply. If not treated, It may lead to tissue death in the testicle which effects fertility and there is pain o DISORDERS OF THE PROSTATE GLAND o PROSTATITIS: inflammation of the prostate gland. Condition causes pain during urination and ejaculation o Can be linked to a bacterial infection and can be successfully treated with antibiotics o BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) : refers to the constriction of the urethra due to a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate. This condition is common in age. mostly in older men. 90 percent of 70 year old males have this condition o PROSTATE CANCER : the second leading cause of cancer death o Early symptoms: frequent urination because of the pressure against the bladder, difficulty urinating because the prostate that surrounds the urethra constricts it and prevents urination flow, and difficulty emptying the bladder o Risk factors: o AGE (average 70 Yrs old) o ETHNICITY (African American men have a higher risk) o HEREDITY of HPC1 gene (heredityprostatecancer) o Men should get screened to get diagnosed early o DIAGNOSIS TECHNIQUES: RECTAL EXAM: finger inserts to the rectum to feel the prostate. They are feeling to see if the prostate is tender, swollen, or has any lumps. This exam is recommended for men who are above 50 PSA BLOOD TEST (prostate specific antigen): this test screens for elevated levels of a protein that is produced by the prostate. If elevated, then it may indicate cancer has developed. They must get further examination to get an actual diagnosis because this blood test is just a screening. TREATMENT: Wait and see (since it is a slow and progressing cancer, many cases intervention is not necessary ) If intervention is needed, a treatment is SURGERY to remove all or part of the prostate cells. This has many side effects like the prevention of ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. This may be too extreme for some people so they choose the wait and see approach Another treatment would be HORMONE BLOCKING DRUGS specifically testosterone. The prostate responds to this hormone and by blocking it, it will help slow down and diminish the spread of the cancer RADIATION: common form of cancer treatment where radiation is targeted to the cancerous tissue in the prostate in order to slow down and destroy any cancerous cells SELF EXAM Easier when warm Look for the color and shape of the glans or any distinct characteristics Also look for the underside of glans, shaft, and scrotum. Look for bumps or lesions Male should feel the testicles and they need to be oval and smooth and they cant have bumps or dimples BOOK:
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