China, India, Americas
China, India, Americas HIS 151
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Dominguez on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 151 at La Salle University taught by DE ANGELIS in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see GLOBAL HIS TO 1500 in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Ancient Agrarian China 21015 Yellow river Loess sediment Yellow river cultures Chinese culture believed in manipulating course of river to make it work for them via magic etc Banpo Village represents entire culture Yangshao 1 2 N97 8 9 Experts at pottery making Agriculturalists Had axes chisels instruments etc China was among the earliest places to cultivate rice Center around growing wheat millet barley other grains Chicken pigs sheep cattle etc Women had more adornments when buried a Most likely ruled in this culture Matrilineal zouhun free love Not sure why the culture disappearedtlood Earthquake 3750 BCE Banpo village disappears As they spread Longshan Era develops Longshan Era Major expansion Potter s wheel was developed Known for black clay pottery Dapenkeng Southeast Asia Xia Shang Zhou first dynasties Xia smaller transitional most likely ruled more urban civilization Shang uncle to nephew crown succession internal regulation and defense system Most powerful military in Asia Conquesttrade Communal agricult Client states could keep own culture but paid tribute to Shang Shang Facts Wu Ding king Fu Hao queenwife Bronze castings Taotie motifs oracle bones Principal deity Di or Shangdi Zhou Dynasty 21215 Lasted nine centuries by about 1000 BCE controlled northern China and about 100 smaller territories Zhou Commentaries Zuo Zhuan Chronicles of Mr Zhou Chunqiu 0 Spring and autumn chronicles Shiji 0 Records of the historian Shujing pring and autumn period circa 750 BQE 500 BQE approx 0 Takes its name from chronicle which it comes from o Chronicle comes from the Lu 0 We see how dukedoms compete for power king acts as figurehead Lessens in authority 0 By the 500s BCE we see smaller states disappear swallowed up by dominating principalities Chinese people favor centralization rather than having smaller separate kingdoms c We see multiple wars during this period 0 Internal revolution in the Jin 6 families fight for supremacy 0 Because a lot of projects ie interstate roads reservoirs canals massive walls are underway neighboring principalities had to work together which they did successfully 0 Walls between principalities are built Roads benefit all parties involved walls are used as protection by smaller principalities against being swallowed up by larger ones Changes during this time period 1 Confucious and confucionism 2 Daoism founded by Aozi 3 Legalism 4 Expansion of religions Warring States Period 0 500 BCE to 256 BCE Seven warring states less exist than before cuz they got overruled during springampautumn period 0 Each has a king 0 Each king has same authority as Zhou king over their municipality 0 At this point the Chinese are very into having just one ruler centralization etc Changes during this time period 1 Bronze is replaced by iron tools which is stronger makes better weapons 2 ProtoGreat Wall was built 3 Trade dominated time period a Philosophers come about which kings appreciate greatly b legalism as philosophical structure emerges 4 Change in military structure a Use of infantry and cavalry i Use of horses greater mobility b Tactics what happens in the battlefield change c No longer use chariots i People in chargeauthority stop participating in battles they are now known as the literal class as opposed to warrior class 5 Sun Zi Art of War a Oldest and most influential at the time military strategy book b 1 of7 c Locked away from the reach of citizens in fear that it would inspire revolt End of the Zhou states focus resources on war against the Ch in but the Ch in win Creation of Ch in Dynasty Ch in Qin rise in power a Hezong strategy 0 Vertical 0 States link up to beat the Qin o Lianhend strategy 0 Horizontal 0 States join the Qin when they are unable to beat them The Mandate of Heaven Rulers must be honest and act morally if they succeed it would show that heaven supported them as ruler Principles 1 Heaven grants the king power 2 Since there is only one heaven there can only be one emperor at a given time 3 The emperor s virtue determines his right to rule 4 No one dynasty has a permanent right to rule Fengiian 4 different grades of people Shi Knightly Class Gong craftsmen Nong peasant farmers Sh39ang merchants may be wealthy but since they do not produce anything they are seen as less than other classes P9053 Women during this time period Very egalitarian period Women are noted for their contributionsuntil centralization under the Qin stops allowing women to participate in military and politics like the Zhou allowed Feudalism families worked in their private parcelsfarms but the public area would be worked for free by the families in order to pay the landowner This is a wellfield system This was lucrative for landowner but also allowed families to have their own private space Americas and ceania 21515 Cordilleras run parallel to one another all through north and south America 0 Examples The Andes the Rocky Mountains 4 main geographic regions 1 Rocky mountain region US and Canada 2 Canadian shield Canada and Greenland 3 Great Plains 4 Appalachian Mountains midAtlantic into south Gulf stream guides hurricanes on the East Coast of the Americas PaleoAmericans went from Africa to Asia and then the Americas over thousands of years and make their way into the pacific northwest down into central and south America 0 They first settled in Alaska refer to the Kennewick Man and then slow emigrated Occurred about 1000015000 years ago Clovis Point main part of one of the earliest American culture 0 First discovered in 1932 in Clovis New Mexico 0 Made from stone 0 There were cultures before these Clovis People but these are the first peoples that we have historical records of More about Early Americans 0 On the move Had family units arranged marriages trade amongst each other and were typically foragers 0 They move towards the coast and Great Lakes regions to settle close to water for stable food and water supplies o Moved for foraging culture to agrarian cultures especially in South America where it is warmer 0 Population grows Large villages and towns emerge 0 Not a lot of animals mostly only dogs alpacas lamasno horses until the Columbian Exchange in the 1500 s Caral Supe 2627 BCE o Mysterious oldest cityurban center in the Americans 0 Same time period as when emperor Khufu is building his pyramid over in the middle east 0 18 sites in close proximity to Caral Supe suburbs 0 Had a temple plazas and amphitheater 0 People here had religion artwork political center bureaucracy etc o No written language no pottery Chavin de Huantar 900200 BCE One of the earliest Andean cultures Stretches over west coast of Peru o Earliest highly developed culture 0 Has a ceremonial and sacrificial center which we get the name from 0 Population of about three thousand by 500 BCE o Expanded city limits Olmec Civilization 1200900 BCE 0 First Mesoamerican culture located in San Lorenzo o Forerunners of Mayans Aztecs lncas etc o In between the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean 0 Known as the rubber people 0 Made an effort to clear out area by chopping trees etc to make it more lucrative through trade due to location 0 There was organized religion 0 La Venta became center of civilization after c 900 BCE 0 They practiced sacrifices cave rituals sports and has smaller pyramids
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