Socrates (2) Con. Introduction to PHI
Socrates (2) Con. Introduction to PHI PHI 151
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 151 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Paula Smithka in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Socrates & the Examined life Socrates (469-399BCE) Apart of the oral traditions Plato (427-347BCE) Student of Socrates First philosopher to begin to write things down o Called dialogues o Socrates is the main character in many Searching for the Truth “Better is the soul” o The Socratic Method Puts out question Thinks about and questions the answers Goal is to find the truth o What is Justice? (from The Republic) Thrasymachus Justice is the interest of the stronger o “might makes right” Are the rulers infallible or are they sometimes subject to err? (Socrates) o They can make mistakes. Thrasymachus admits that subjects are to follow the laws weather or not they are in the interest of the stronger. Condradiction justice is both for and against the interest of the ruler o The strategy of: Reduction ad absurdam Reduction to absurdity Opponent makes a claim “ Press” the claim (adequate? Realistic? Plausible?) o If not o Contradiction- cancels out original claim Necessarily false statement o The trail and death of Socrates (The Apology) Socrates is about 70 years old The Role of Gadflies (horsefly) in society Socrates considered himself to be like the gadfly of Athens Meletus, Antyus, Lycon (accusers) 501 Jurors Charges: Corrupting the youth (does everyone but him aid the youth?) Not believing in the gods of Athens (or later atheism) Oracle says that Socrates is the wisest man alive: He tries to prove this wrong by going to o Politicians o Poets o Artisans o Martin Luther King, Jr. 1963 Letter from Birmingham Jail Analogies Pathos Non-violent direct action Bringing the protest out into the public Awareness Forced to confront the issue Just Vs. Unjust Laws o The Crito (the death scene) Friends want him to escape from jail (Socrates) Logic Basics o About Arguments Arguments are (never true or false) Good/strong Bad/Weak Philosophical o Evidence (points to get across) Rhetorical *not same context as seen in English* o Emotional appeal Parts of an argument (Formal) Premise(s) o Evidence/reasons o Statements (can be true or false) Claim, declarative sentence o Indicator words In view of the fact Because Due to the fact Assuming that Since For Given that Inasmuch as Conclusion o Points to get/have gotten across o Indicator words Consequently As a result Thus Therefor So Which means that It follows that Inference thought/reasoning patterns o About Statements Properties of a statement Contrast with non-parts of arguments Re: Belief & Opinion statements Belief: o I believe that man landed on the moon. Looking for evidence Compound statement Object of belief “I believe” subjective Cognitive/psychological component Epistemic component Opinion: o Common sense of preference o Subjective Can not give evidence Come from experience o Deductions & induction: Reasoning Patterns Deduction: evidence (premise) provides grounds for conclusion Certainty is possible o If premise were all true conclusion is guarantied to be true Sam likes bananas. Therefore, someone likes bananas. Induction: premises are more loosely connected with conclusion Degrees of probability, not certainty o Predictions: probability/likelihood of outcome or event o Generalizations: idea generated from sample said to coverall all of the category All crows have black feathers, but one might be purple or albino. o Deductive arguments Strong Deductive Argument: Valid Validity: if all of the premises were true, the conclusion cannot be false o Good evidence should never lead to a false conclusion Weak Deductive Argument: Invalid Invalid: if all the premises were true the conclusion could be false Soundness Sound = Valid + has true premises Testing deductive arguments Counter example method Example o All (quantifier) humans are mortal, all people in this class are human, therefore all people in this class are mortal. Counter o All * are #. All humans are living beings. All animals are cats. o All @ are *. All female humans are human. All dogs are animals o Therefore all @ are #. All female humans are living beings. All dogs are cats. o The example is valid because it is sound. Example o All flowers are plants, o All daisies are plants, o All daisies are flowers. Counter o All * are @. All triangles are shapes. o All # are @. All circles are shapes. o All # are * All circles are triangles. o The example is invalid because the conclusion could be false. Example o All cars are vehicles. o All cars are automobiles. o All automobiles are vehicles. Counter o All * are #, All crows are birds. o All * are @, All crows are black things o All @ are #. All black things are birds. o Argument structure is invalid because it leads to a false conclusion with all true premises. Homework All human beings are persons. All persons are beings deserving of respect. Therefore all beings deserving of respect are human. Homework Counter All # are *. o All visible lights are colors. All * are %. o All colors are spectrums of light. There fore all % are #. o Therefore spectrums of light are visible light. (false) Nonsense argument All ladders have minds. All plants are ladders. All plants have minds. Counter All # have *. All % are #. Therefore all % have *. Argument is valid but not sound o Arguing in a circle Begging the question Example: All ripe lemons are yellow. Therefore all ripe lemons are yellow. No structure issue/argument is valid. o Modus Ponens If the surgeon operates then the patient will be cured. The surgeon is operating. Therefore the patient will be cured. If p then q Given p Then result is q If its raining then I will take my umbrella, It is raining I will take my umbrella Argument is valid. o Modus If p then q If the surgeon operates, then the patient will be cured If it is raining I will take my umbrella Given Q The patient is cured I will take my umbrella Therefore p The surgeon operated. It is raining? (Not necessary) Invalid premises can lead to a false conclusion o Formal Fallacy The structure of the argument is bad.
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