Week 4/5 notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Psych 2/12 -2/15 notes Sensation vs Perception - General Sensation Characteristics: o Thresholds o Subliminal sensation o Adaptation o Transduction o Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch - Sensation is the detection & pick up of the environment (stimuli) and translating it into neural impulses. ( it is the detection and the response to external stimulus energy) o Ex) sensory receptors pick up heat and texture through touch and sound through hearing. o External Stimuli: light, vibrations, odor, touch, etc. o Sensory experiences depend on thresholds. (a threshold is the minimum amount of information required to detect something) - Perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory input. (you’re receiving light & sound waves and you have to organize them through perception) Ex) you don’t perceive depth; your brain organizes it so you can see it. o Memories change perception. Ex) the smell of chocolate chip cookies is generally connected with happiness & positive memories. o Process of perceiving Detection: Smelling the chocolate chip cookie Sensory Receptors: allow you to feel if the cookie is warm & soft. Also, if you chew the cookie, it sends signals through your taste buds to the brain that it tastes good and it is stored as a memory. Interpretation: You later can recognize the smell of chocolate chip cookies. o We have 5 different tastes, but smell impacts our taste. This combines 2 experiences (taste & olfaction) to perceive the taste experience. (also your emotional state & sounds you’re hearing effect perception) - Signal Detection Theory (SDT) o A process of assessing an individual’s awareness of stimuli. Ex) dogs can detect and perceive a range of sound waves higher than humans. To test the range that can people hear, the participant has to tell whether or not they hear a sound. Hit vs Miss: stimulus is present and the participant detects it would be a Hit. A Miss would be if the stimulus was present and they DIDN’T detect it. A “False Alarm” can happen when there is no stimulus but the participant says they detected it. (A false alarm can happen because the participant is expecting to hear a sound and they are using expectation instead of experience.) A Correct Rejection would be no stimulus and no detection. - Absolute Threshold is the minimum amount of stimulus needed to perceive the stimulus 50% of the time. o Capability to detect it above 50% is called a supraliminal stimulus o Below 50% is a subliminal stimulus 2 Ex) Starting without any sensation, how much stimulus is required to reach 50% perception? Examples: In a dark tunnel, 30 miles away a candle is lit, you can see it. At 30.1 Miles people can’t see it, and 29.9 Miles people can see it more than 50% of the time. In an odorless house with 6 rooms of equal size, if you put 1 drop of perfume in 1 of the rooms, you can smell it 50% of the time. If someone places a 1 Cm wing from a fly on you, you will only detect it 50% of the time. - Subliminal Messages o Words/Images that aren’t consciously perceived, but may influence a person’s judgments. Ex) the Bush campaign had an add that flashed the word rats across the screen when talking about Al Gore. o Greenwald & others: self-esteem and vocabulary boosting tapes were given to participants to listen to for 3 weeks. Half of the participants were told what they were given and half were told they were given for example the vocab tape but actually got the self-esteem tape. The results showed that whatever tape the participants were TOLD they were given improved over the 3 weeks. This shows those tapes don’t work. - Priming is the (sometimes subliminal) activation of associations that affect perception, memory, and responses. We can sense things but don’t always perceive them. o Priming affective responses 3 Faces used as stimuli for 24 milliseconds (subliminal prime) of either a smile, frown, or neutral followed by a Chinese symbol (something you are unbiased toward, if they used English words you would have emotions already established with the word). The results of how the Chinese symbol made participants feel correlated with the subliminal primes. The neutral prime was rated a 3 when asked if participants liked it. The frown prime was rated a 2.6 when asked if participants liked it. The smile prime was rated 3.4 when asked if participants like it. - Caveats o Works for weak/ ambiguous attitude o Works when people are already motivated (back to the “rats” example, if someone already disliked Gore they would dislike him even more after seeing that) o Works in a controlled lab conditions (a room with bare walls that is sound proof) o Effects are not likely to be long lasting - Strahan et. Al. 2002 o People were told they were participating in a taste testing study. Half of the people were told not to drink anything prior to the study & half weren’t. o Prior to the test, they had to fill out a questionnaire while being unconsciously primed with thirst or neutral words while taking it. (neutral word ex: pants- no relation to thirst, prime would be desert) After, the amount of beverage they consumed when testing was recorded and the thirstier you were the 4 more you would drink. However, the results showed no significant difference between the people who were allowed to drink before the study. The people who WERENT allowed to drink prior to the study and were primed with thirst words drank a lot more than those who weren’t primed with thirst words. This shows that the prime pushed you over the edge. - Sensation can happen without perception - You’re aware of a supraliminal prime (it is above the threshold) and so you can control your behavior. Ex) if you volunteer for a study and someone starts swearing at you, you can probably assume the study has to do with how swearing affects your behavior and decide how you want to react. However, if you were subliminally primed with swear words you wouldn’t be aware of them which would make your behavior authentic. 5
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