Science of Human Nutrition
Science of Human Nutrition 23511
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 23511 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Science of Human Nutrition Week 4 notes Cultural Value Surround Food • Cultural norms are not easily modified • Dietary change introduced into a culture to improve health only works if it is accepted by the culture • People become protective of their cultural foods • May need modified on occasion to make it healthier Food choices do change • Change over time • What parents saw advertised on tv is different than what we see now • People drink more skim milk than whole milk • Less red meat is consumed now than ever ○ Takes a long time to digest ○ Has more saturated fats • People eat a lot of chicken now ○ Inexpensive form of protein ○ Less saturated fat, very lean meat • Eating more greens and vegetables Attitudes, Beliefs and Values • Influences by how we perceive our diet • Believe that the foods you eat are linked to your health Successful changes in Food Choices • Can't change everything all at once • Make a specific plan • Start with small, simple changes • Be prepared for relapses in eating • If you eat something unhealthy don’t stop eating the healthy things Malnutrition & Mental Performance • Has severe effects in early childhood • Some children never fully recover • Malnutrition plays a part in how children act and learn • Protein-calorie malnutrition in early life ○ Leads to growth retardation, low intelligence, poor memory and short attention span • Protein-calorie malnutrition in later childhood ○ Behavioral effects can be corrected with nutritional rehabilitation • Can stunt growth Other dietary events impair learning • Skipping breakfast ○ Reduces late-morning problem-solving performance of children ○ Jumpstarts metabolism ○ Prevents over eating later in the day • Fetal alcohol exposure ○ Permanently delays mental development ○ Behavioral problems ○ When women drink when they are pregnant ○ Irreversible problems • Iron-deficiency anemia ○ Long-term functional problems with motor skills, attention span, problem solving abilities ○ 20% of men, 35% of women and 40% of all children are anemic § Primarily due to iron deficiency ○ Can tell by drawing blood • Lead toxicity ○ Low-level exposure causes long-term behavioral effects, impaired reading skills and aggression ○ Increases absenteeism and dropout rates ○ Can no longer buy lead based paints for this reason Food additives, Sugar and Hyperactivity • Sugar ○ No proven link • Food colorants and preservatives ○ Linked to hyperactivity, impulsiveness and short attention span Future Research • Difficult to separate the effects of diet on behavior from the social, economic, educational and genetic influences • More research there is he healthier we will be • Many assumptions about diet and behavior must await confirmation through research Understanding Nutrition and Food Labels Nutrition Labeling • 1990 Nutrition labeling and education act passed by congress • 1993 food and drug administration (FDA) published rules for nutrition labeling Nutrition Facts Panel • Specific information is required ○ Total calories and fats ○ Cholesterol ○ Sodium ○ Proteins ○ Iron and calcium ○ Vitamins A and C ○ Fiber • Anything that has more than one ingredient will have a nutrition facts panel • Knowing the serving size is the most important thing • If you want to follow a low fat diet 8 grams of fat is too high ○ Do not want a product with over 3 grams of fat per serving ○ Or if you have heart disease or gall bladder disease • Do not want grams of fat to be over 5 if you are trying to just be healthier or trying to lose weight • Cholesterol comes from animals ○ This means there is some type of meat in there ○ Would not eat if vegan • Should not consumer over 2300 mg of sodium per day ○ If you're looking for something low sodium look for something with 140 mg of sodium or less ○ Soup and ramen noodles have very high sodium • Carbohydrates ○ A slice of whole wheat bread has about 15 grams of carbohydrates • Protein ○ 1 ounce of meat (chicken, red meat, etc.) is about 7 grams of protein • Daily Values (DV) ○ scientifically agreed upon standards of daily intake of nutrients from the diet developed for use on nutrient labels ○ Based on a 2,000 calorie daily intake • Claims not approved by the FDA ○ Natural, all natural, pure ○ Pasture-fed, free-range ○ Hormone or pesticide free • Jelly Bean rule ○ Manufacturers cant add nutrients to certain foods then claim the product is "healthy" Health Claims • Foods with scientifically agreed upon benefits for disease prevention can be labeled with a health claim • The FDA approves health claims for food products that are not high in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol or sodium ○ Fruits and vegetables § Relationship with reducing cancer ○ Calcium and vitamin D § Help with osteoporosis Ingredient Label • All food with more than one ingredient must have an ingredient fact panel • The first ingredient listed is the most heavy, heaviest in weight, not based upon calories • Beverages containing juice must list the percentage of juice in ingredient label • The top 5 ingredients are the heaviest ○ If diabetic do not want sugar to be in the top five § Or if you are trying to love weight • Will tell you what types of dyes are in your food ○ Important if you are allergic to certain types of dyes Key Terms • Food additives ○ Substances added to food that become part of the food or affect the characteristics of the food ○ Applies to substances added intentionally or unintentionally ○ Added to improve shelf life, color and texture, cooking properties, nutrient content, etc. • Food additives on the label ○ More than 3,000 chemical additives ○ All part of the GRAS list § Stands for Generally Recognized As Safe ○ New additives must be approved by the FDA • Unintentional additives ○ Trace amounts of unintentional additives do not appear on food labels § Pesticides, hormones, antibiotics § Fragments of packaging material § Small fragments of bone § Insects ○ Can not be seem with human eye • Irradiated foods ○ Irradiation kills insects, bacteria, mold and other microorganisms ○ Doe not make food radioactive ○ Process of killing microorganisms not modifying the product • Nutrient Content Claims ○ Fresh § Ex. Fresh spinach § Foods are raw, not frozen or heated and contain no preservatives ○ Healthy § Ex. Healthy burritos, canned vegetables § No more than 60 grams of cholesterol, less than 3 grams of fat, ○ Extra lean § Ex. Extra lean pork or hamburger ○ Lean § Ex. Lean beef or turkey ○ Low-fat § 3 grams or less of fat ○ Low sodium § Less than or equal to 140 mg of sodium per serving Dietary Supplement Labeling • Not approved by the FDA or undergo testing • Any product intended to supplement the diet • Multi-vitamins are usually okay • All dietary supplements still have to have a nutrition fact panel • May use nutrient and health claims • Can not say it will cure you or treat a problem The cool rule • Foods have an origin of where they came from • A country of origin label must appear on some products • Helps track down foodborne illnesses • Means it has an origin of where it came from so it can be tracked anywhere
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