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LING 1010 - Lecture 4 Notes

by: Sarah Skinger

LING 1010 - Lecture 4 Notes LING 1010

Sarah Skinger
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These notes cover what was discussed in Lecture 4: Grammar Basics: Sound and Meaning
Introduction to Languages and Linguistics
Hendrikus Van Der Hulst
Class Notes
LING 1010, Lecture 4, Linguistics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Lecture 4: Grammar Basics: Sound and Meaning  Phonemes ­ The building blocks of words, informally called “speech sounds”.  They are used to pronounce a word, and allow us to recognize a word that  someone else pronounces. We know the word by knowing the building blocks of  the word.  o Every language has it’s own set of phonemes o One phoneme is not always pronounced the same way  Each word is a sign: something consisting of form (phonemes) and meaning.  Syntax allows us to combine signs to create complex signs, and those complex  signs fall into categories based on how they combine (category labels).  A word has three dimensions: o Form ­ Phonology ­ The study of phonemes and the way that they  combine to create words.  Words are built out of a series of phonemes (don’t have meaning  on their own) and are organized into units (symbols). Words are an  output of units, comparable to a sequence of notes. o Category Label ­ Syntax ­ The study of word class labels and the way that  words are combined to create sentences.  Words must have a label (noun, verb, etc)­ it is a directive for how it is used in a sentence. o Meaning ­ Semantics ­ The study of concepts and they way that they  combine to create a meaning.  The mental concept you have. The meaning of a word. For  example, the meaning of the word “cat”. Morphemes  Simple Words are formed from just one morpheme ­ the smallest meaningful part that you can find in a word. It cannot be divided into smaller parts that still have  meaning. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful parts of language. o Cat, Dog, Table, Hippopotamus, Elephant  Complex Words are formed from two or more morphemes (two or more  meaningful parts) o un­fair, un­read­able, etc  Morphemes ­ The smallest meaningful parts of language  Phonemes ­ The smallest sound bits of language  Free Morphemes ­ Can occur by themselves. Cannot be divided into smaller  meaningful parts. Ex: Mother, child, burrito, pencil  Bound Morphemes ­ Are bound to other morphemes to create words. Also called  Affix (for prefix, suffix).  Ex:  re­, un­, ­hood  Morphemes are storred in the Lexico, and are not innate.  o If you learn a second language before puberty, you are still very  susceptible to language and will pick it up easily, and most likely not have  an accent.  Mental Grammar ­ Contains morphemes and rules used to form complex words  and sentences.  There are two steps of Syntax: o Morphology (complex words) o Syntax (sentences) o Together, they are called morpho­syntax o Complex words and sentences are both complex signs The Organization of Grammar  Morphemes (in the Lexicon) → Complex Words (Morphology) → Sentences  (Syntax)  The Mental Grammar: o Constructs ­ Builds structures (words and sentences) o Inspects ­ Checks that all words and sentences are formed correctly  MERGE is the structure building mechanism of grammar. It combines other  words or sentences Structure  Combining units A and B result in the combination C. This is represented in a  tree diagram.          C              mother node/ top node                             ╱╲                               A                    ← daughter nodes/ terminal nodes  This structure can also be represented as [A B]C  Merge creates this hierarchical structure in which daughter nodes combine to  create a mother node. All nodes in between are called intermediate nodes  Each node can only have one mother node. No node can have two (or more)  mother nodes.       E                       mother nodes                   G                                         ╱╲                                                              ╱╲                                    D          ╲            Intermediate nodes         E         F                                   ╱╲              ╲                                              ╱╲        ╱╲                                A      B              C       daughter nodes       A     B   C     D  Each structure needs to be checked by the mental grammar o The form ­ phonology o The category ­ morpho­syntax o The meaning ­ semantics  Both words AND sentences have to be checked in all three dimensions: o Phonotactic ­ Phoneme structure o Semantics ­ Conceptual structure o Morpho­Syntax ­ Syntax structure Six Submodules of the Mental Grammar  Phonology o For Words: Word Phonology o For Sentences:Sentence Phonology  Semantics: o For Words: Lexical Semantics o For Sentences: Sentence Semantics  Morpho­Syntax: o For Words: Morphology ­ Word Syntax o For Sentences ­ Syntax ­ Sentence Syntax  A submodule Contains: o Basic Units. Phonology: Phonemes. Semantics: Words. Morphology:  Morphemes. o Rules for formation (to ensure everything is well formed) o Repair Rules


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