LING 1010 - Lecture 4 Notes
LING 1010 - Lecture 4 Notes LING 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Lecture 4: Grammar Basics: Sound and Meaning Phonemes The building blocks of words, informally called “speech sounds”. They are used to pronounce a word, and allow us to recognize a word that someone else pronounces. We know the word by knowing the building blocks of the word. o Every language has it’s own set of phonemes o One phoneme is not always pronounced the same way Each word is a sign: something consisting of form (phonemes) and meaning. Syntax allows us to combine signs to create complex signs, and those complex signs fall into categories based on how they combine (category labels). A word has three dimensions: o Form Phonology The study of phonemes and the way that they combine to create words. Words are built out of a series of phonemes (don’t have meaning on their own) and are organized into units (symbols). Words are an output of units, comparable to a sequence of notes. o Category Label Syntax The study of word class labels and the way that words are combined to create sentences. Words must have a label (noun, verb, etc) it is a directive for how it is used in a sentence. o Meaning Semantics The study of concepts and they way that they combine to create a meaning. The mental concept you have. The meaning of a word. For example, the meaning of the word “cat”. Morphemes Simple Words are formed from just one morpheme the smallest meaningful part that you can find in a word. It cannot be divided into smaller parts that still have meaning. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful parts of language. o Cat, Dog, Table, Hippopotamus, Elephant Complex Words are formed from two or more morphemes (two or more meaningful parts) o unfair, unreadable, etc Morphemes The smallest meaningful parts of language Phonemes The smallest sound bits of language Free Morphemes Can occur by themselves. Cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. Ex: Mother, child, burrito, pencil Bound Morphemes Are bound to other morphemes to create words. Also called Affix (for prefix, suffix). Ex: re, un, hood Morphemes are storred in the Lexico, and are not innate. o If you learn a second language before puberty, you are still very susceptible to language and will pick it up easily, and most likely not have an accent. Mental Grammar Contains morphemes and rules used to form complex words and sentences. There are two steps of Syntax: o Morphology (complex words) o Syntax (sentences) o Together, they are called morphosyntax o Complex words and sentences are both complex signs The Organization of Grammar Morphemes (in the Lexicon) → Complex Words (Morphology) → Sentences (Syntax) The Mental Grammar: o Constructs Builds structures (words and sentences) o Inspects Checks that all words and sentences are formed correctly MERGE is the structure building mechanism of grammar. It combines other words or sentences Structure Combining units A and B result in the combination C. This is represented in a tree diagram. C mother node/ top node ╱╲ A ← daughter nodes/ terminal nodes This structure can also be represented as [A B]C Merge creates this hierarchical structure in which daughter nodes combine to create a mother node. All nodes in between are called intermediate nodes Each node can only have one mother node. No node can have two (or more) mother nodes. E mother nodes G ╱╲ ╱╲ D ╲ Intermediate nodes E F ╱╲ ╲ ╱╲ ╱╲ A B C daughter nodes A B C D Each structure needs to be checked by the mental grammar o The form phonology o The category morphosyntax o The meaning semantics Both words AND sentences have to be checked in all three dimensions: o Phonotactic Phoneme structure o Semantics Conceptual structure o MorphoSyntax Syntax structure Six Submodules of the Mental Grammar Phonology o For Words: Word Phonology o For Sentences:Sentence Phonology Semantics: o For Words: Lexical Semantics o For Sentences: Sentence Semantics MorphoSyntax: o For Words: Morphology Word Syntax o For Sentences Syntax Sentence Syntax A submodule Contains: o Basic Units. Phonology: Phonemes. Semantics: Words. Morphology: Morphemes. o Rules for formation (to ensure everything is well formed) o Repair Rules
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