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Descriptive Statistics

by: Jonathan Femi-Cole

Descriptive Statistics PSTL1004

Marketplace > PSTL1004 > Descriptive Statistics
Jonathan Femi-Cole

GPA 3.2

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About this Document

Stem and leaf plot, shape of graphs, interquartile Range, 5 number summary
Statistics:Understanding and Applying Data
Suzanne Loch
Class Notes
Math, Statistics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonathan Femi-Cole on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSTL1004 at a university taught by Suzanne Loch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics Tuesday, January 26, 2016 6:09 PM Introduction • Data can be described and presented in many different formats. • The median and variation are just two ways that you will learn to describe data. • Descriptive Statistics: ○ numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. ○ learn to calculate, and even more importantly, to interpret these measurements and graphs. Displaying Data • Statistical Graph ○ a tool that helps you learn about the shape or distribution of a sample. ○ more effective way of presenting data than a mass of numbers • Types of Graphs ○ dot plot ○ the bar chart ○ the histogram ○ the stem-and-leaf plot ○ the frequency polygon (a type of broken line graph) ○ pie charts ○ boxplot. Stem and Leaf Graphs (Stemplots) • It is a good choice when the data sets are small • divide each observation of data into a stem and a leaf. • The leaf consists of a final significant digit. ○ For example, 23 has stem 2 and leaf 3. Four hundred thirty-two (432) has stem 43 and leaf 2. Five thousand four hundred thirty-two (5,432) has stem 543 and leaf 2. • Outlier ○ an observation of data that does not fit the rest of the data. ○ sometimes called an extreme value In Class Notes Tuesday, January 26, 2016 6:08 PM Graphing data to answer three questions • Shape – what shape does the distribution have? • Center – what is a typical answer to this question ○ Mean: with standard deviation ○ Median: the middle of the data or the average of the two middle values Put the data in order from smallest to largest 2 4 5 9 12 Find the location of the median, the median rank Median Rank = Median is 5 • Spread or variability – how different are the answers to the question? Histograms: • Divide measurement up into equal-sized categories (BIN WIDTH) • Determine number of measurements falling into each category. • Draw a bar for each category so bars’ heights represent the number falling into the categories. • Label and title appropriately. • Use common sense in determining number of categories to use. Between 6 & 15 intervals is preferable Shapes: Symmetric (specifically Bell) Skewed Right Skewed Left Uniform Bimodal - has two peaks that stand out Variability/Spread Range: measures the overall spread of the data Interquartile Range (IQR): measures the difference between the first and third quartile Interquartile Range Put the data in order from smallest to largest Find the quartile rank – the location of the quartilies Count in the value of the quartile rank from both ends Middle # of the Low end gives Q1 Middle # of the High end gives Q3 IQR = Q3 – Q1 5 Number Summary


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