Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology Sociology 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Pamfilis on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 101 at Towson University taught by William Tsitsos in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Chapter 4: Introduction to Society and Social Interaction 4.1: Types of Societies Society: a group of people who live in a definable community and share the same culture (small scale); the people and institutions around us, our shared beliefs, political authority, and our cultural ideals (large scale) Societies with rudimentary technology depend on the fluctuations of their environment, whereas industrialized societies have more control over the impact of their surroundings (and thus can develop different cultural features) Hunter-gatherer societies: demonstrate the strongest dependence on the environment of all of the kinds of preindustrial societies, based abound kinship or tribes, hunted wild animals and foraged uncultivated plants for food, were nomadic (moved according to movement of food sources) Pastoral societies: rely on the domestication of animals as a resource for survival, able to breed livestock for food, clothing, and transportation, which created a variety of goods, nomadic because they had to follow their herds to fresh feeding grounds, specialized occupations began to develop, trading emerged Horticultural societies: formed in areas where rainfall and other conditions allowed them to grow stable crops, largely relied on the environment for survival, not nomadic (lived in permanent settlements) Agricultural societies: relied on permanent tools for survival (made possible by the agricultural revolution), towns and cities began to emerge, becoming centers of commerce Feudal societies: contained a strict hierarchal system of power based around land ownership and protection, nobility (lords) placed vassals (similar to knights) in charge of land which was cultivated by the lower class Industrial Revolution (1800s): dramatic rise in technological invention quality and accessibility of education and healthcare soared, nightlife in cities began to appear, rise of urban centers (factories for jobs) and diversity because of this, new capitalist economy Information societies: based on the production of information and services, also called postindustrial or digital societies 4.2: Theoretical Perspectives on Society Three thinkers form the modern day ideals of sociology: Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber Emile Durkheim (functionalist), 1858-1917 o Stressed the importance of the interconnectivity of all parts of the social system, society as a living organism o Individual behavior is not the same as collective behavior o Collective conscience: the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society o Social integration: the strength of ties that people have to their social groups (key factor in social life) o Social facts: real social forces o Crime is essential to society o Mechanical solidarity: a type of social order maintained by the collective consciousness of a culture ("things have always been done this way") o Organic solidarity: social order based around acceptance of economic and social differences, allows people with differing values to coexist o Anomie: "without law", a situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness, avoided by redeveloping a shared set of social norms Karl Marx (conflict theorist), 1818-1883 o Society's constructions were predicted upon the idea of "base and superstructure", the idea that a society's economic character forms its base, upon which rests the culture and social institutions; the economy dictates what the society will be like o Bourgeoisie: owners of the means of production o Proletariat: the laborers o Class antagonisms: revolutions as a result of one class dominating another o Alienation: the condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or the sense of self (four specific types) Alienation from the product of one's labor Alienation from the process of one's labor Alienation from others Alienation from one's self o False consciousness: a condition in which the beliefs, ideals, or ideology of a person are not in the persons best interest o Class consciousness: the awareness of one's rank in society Max Weber (Symbolic Interactionism), 19th century o Feared that industrialization would have negative effects on individuals o Saw class as economically determined, separated between owners and laborers o Status, he believed, was determined by noneconomic factors (education, kinship, and religion) o Rational society: one build upon logic and efficiency rather than morality or tradition. Weber saw capitalism as entirely rational o Iron cage: the culmination of industrialization, rationalization, and the like results in which an individual is trapped by institutions and bureaucracy 4.3: Social Constructions on Reality Habitualization: the way in which we create our own society through humans and human interactions Institutionalization: the act of implanting a convention or norm into society Thomas theorem: people's behavior can be determined by their subjective constitution of reality rather than by objective reality Self-fulfilling prophecy: even a false idea can become true if acted upon Our construction of reality is influenced by our symbolic interactions Roles: patterns of behavior that we recognize in each other as representative of a person's social status Status: the responsibilities and benefits a person experiences according to their rank and role in society o Achieved: statuses obtained by choice (high school dropout, nurse, self-made millionaire) o Ascribed: statuses that you do not select (female, son, elderly person) Role set: array of roles Role strain: occurs if too much is required of a single role Role conflict: when one or more roles are contradictory Role performance: how a person expresses his or her role Goffman believed that we use impression management to present ourselves to others as we hope to be perceived, similarly to actors on a stage (dramaturgy) Looking-glass self: Cooley's idea that our presentation of ourselves is going to affect how others see us; our sense of self is based upon this idea
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