Race & Ethnicity Lecture Notes
Race & Ethnicity Lecture Notes Anthropology 130
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melodi Harfouche on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by De Pendry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Race andor Ethnicity Ethnic Groups I Share certain beliefs values habits customs and norms because of their common background Ethnic Groups I May distinguish themselves or be distinguished by others based on I Language I Religion I Historical experiences I Geographic isolation common territory I Kinship belief in common descent I Race l Collective name I Sense of solidarity inclusion and exclusion Ethn1c Groups and NatlonStates I Ethnic groups may or may not have control over a territory or a nation state I Most modern nation states are multi ethnic or multi tribal I Constructions of national identity I imagined communities Benedict Anderson 1991 most members do not know each other yet feel comradeship Media education etc Ethnic Relations in NationStates I Assimilation I Subordinate groups adopt norms of dominant group I Plural societies occupying separate ecological andor economic niches I Multiculturalism I Con icts I Prejudice devaluing stereotypes I Discrimination policies and practices I Armed con ict gt genocide Social Identity Subject position Status not prestige position in society Ascribed Assigned by others person has little or no choice Examples age gender race Achieved Obtained through actions Examples physician college student parent Negotiation of Social Identity People have multiple identities They may stress certain aspects of their identities in certain situations Limits based on power relations in society Maj orityminority groups Population Dominantsubordinated groups Power access to resources Takenfor granted privileges vs prejudice discrimination Hispanics or Latinos Hispanic term favored by US census Includes people with diverse origins in terms of nations regions racial andor ethnic groups in Latin America Largest groups Mexican Americans Chicanos mexicanos Puerto Ricans Cuban Americans Ethnic Groups in Hawai i Hawaiian kanaka Haole foreigner Europeans Anglo Americans Chinese Japanese Filipinos Portuguese Puerto Ricans Koreans Samoans African Americans Cosmopolitan Vietnamese Race and Racisms Race Ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis distinctively shared blood or genes and which are often marked by supposedly distinctive physical characteristics phenotype Racism discrimination against racially defined groups Racism often includes Ideas about purity Inclusion and Exclusion maintaining boundaries Social Theory on Race Culturally constructed I Linked to phenotypes so appear natural I Categories can and have changed over time I Can be transformed created destroyed I Experienced in everyday interactions Historical projects that have patterned current social and cultural inequalities differences I Legal and other restrictions on marriage and other forms of social interaction I Access to resources jobs housing etc I Historically linked to class and gender Dominant Racial Groups Unmarked vs marked categories Privileges that are often taken for granted Examples of Privileges John Hartigan Jr 2009 Bruce Braun 2003 Whites Individuals People of Color representatives of Groups risk takers Individuals At Risk Group Obama Individual What counts as racial Remarks Narratives Arguments Institutional Discrimination What often does not count as racial Ad With White man and Monkeys Ads and programs With Cavemen Images in the media of immigrants in the 1920s and now 9 rule Race US compared to Brazil US defined mainly by blood hypodescent Children of anyone classified as black black the one drop Brazil defined mainly by phenotype Range of terms White to black How black person looks ascribed Nevertheless racial hierarchy Castas in Colonial Mexico Spanish Indians Blacks gt Mestizos Spanish Indian gt Mulatos African Spanish gt Lobos Indian African Mestizo Spaniard Castiza Castiza Spaniard Spaniard I Mulato Spaniard Morisco I Morisco Spaniard Albino I Albino Spaniard Negro Tomo Atras I black returned backwards I Lobo Indian Zambaiga I Cambuja Indian Lobo Tomo Atras Racial Minorities in Japan Ainu aboriginal Okinawans Koreans Other immigrants Burakumin Defined by blood not phenotype Historically associated with unclean professions animal slaughter leather dealing with the dead Burakumin Discrimination I Reluctance of others to marry them I Restricted to certain neighborhoods I Poor housing and sanitation I Limited access to education jobs amenities and health facilities I More likely to have careers in crime prostitution entertainment and sports I Can be successful in certain professions e g owner of a shoe factory Burakumin Political Mobilization gt Japan dismantled legal structure of discrimination gt Efforts to improve liVing conditions and access to education and other resources
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