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Into the west

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by: lena metcalf

Into the west hist 2620

lena metcalf

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Last notes for exam 1
Dr. Andrew J. Torget
Class Notes
25 ?




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1 review
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"Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class."
Reggie Heathcote

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by lena metcalf on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 2620 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Andrew J. Torget in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see in History at University of North Texas.


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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.

-Reggie Heathcote


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Into the West OUTLINE: 1. Moving Westward 2. Selling and Settling the Great Plains 3. Killing the Buffalo 4. Indian Wars and Reservations 5. Hard Times for Farmers NAMES TO KNOW: - The Great Plains - Homestead Act (1862) - Transcontinental Railroad - The Comanche’s - Quanah Parker - Red River War - The Sioux - The Black Hills - Sitting Bull - Little Big Horn - Dawes Act (1887) - Massacre at Wounded Knee **EXAM: FEBRUARY 11 *** TH Review: Reconstruction. South had been brought back into the US. Ex confederates eventually come back as more or less full citizens. Are mostly forgiven, and they are upset because they felt they were screwed over during reconstruction. Former slaves are citizens, and should have the right to vote. Slavery is now over. _________________________ People start overflowing to states where there haven’t been large groups of people before. “west has been Texas, and California.” Majority of settlement in Texas has been in East texas. California came into the states after Mexican war. People start to fly out to California, due to the Gold Rush. Huge wave of people that come sweeping over continent: Started giving away land to anyone who would go out there **Homestead act: effort by us congress to encourage farmers to move into these western lands so that they could have land, and vote for the republican party. If you moved out west, you would get 160 acres. If you stayed for 5 years, you would then pay $10. Some didn’t want to wait for 5 years to own land, so they made it where you could pay $1.25 every 6 months. This was meant for poor families who needed land. But there were scammers who would use farmers as fronts, but then would take the federal land for themselves. Their plan is to “flip” it. Another major reason so many are moving west- the expansion of the railroad. Pacific Railroad Act- creat transcontinental railroad. From Nebraska to California, and connect to the east. Meet up in May of 1869 at Prometary point in Utah. Where each railroad met to connect to each other. Now the railroad reaches from coast to coast. They placed a golden spike in the ground. ***May 1869 Railroad service connects the 2 coasts of the United States*** 180 million acres of land were being given away to the railroads because it would help the economy, and the us as a whole. Then the railroads would sell the land to farmers, to make money. Then the railroads were just being created to gain land. All these railroad companies are trying to get people to move west, and start selling land in Iowa, Nebraska, etc. How did the railroads sell land to the farmers? Would talk farmers into it, and started lying. They started making up science to convince farmers to move to the plains, because the plains weren’t good for farming, because it would never rain. They would tell the farmers that if they would plow, then the rain would come. The farmers were gullible, and would fall for it. Would put these lies in their advertising. They got someone from Harvard to state that the railroads would change the electromagnetic field, and change the weather. So then farmers would move. There are already people living out on the plains: Native Americans About a quarter million native American people who live out west of the Mississippi, who live in the plains. They speak different languages, have different cultures, and traditions. Because they live on the plains, they make their life about Bison/Buffalo. There were 30 million Bison living on the plains. After droughts, they begin to lessen. Railroads then come to ruin the land, encroaching upon the land of the native americans. The bison are killed off, and hit by these trains. Early 1870s there .. *Dancing of the wolves Thousands and thousands of buffalo hunters out on the plains killing the buffalo to make profit. Billy Dickson- Made lots of profit from hunting and killing Bsion “no mercy was showed the buffalo….. dollars against tender heartedness- and the dollar won” 500,700 bison were killed by Orlando Brown. He went deaf due to the process Adobe walls: where buffalo hides would be stacked for railroads to take and transfer. Have millions of people swarming in the plains, brought by railroads, and broud by the government, and alongside, the destruction of the Bison. 2 fights: south (texas) north (s. Dakota) Comanches: june 1874 . wanted to kill those who were killing buffalo, to make them stop. June 1874 kowana parker and his men planned to attack buffalo hunters. Unfortunately, the hunters had already been awake. They heard the native americans, and began shooting and them. Becomes 4 day standoff at Adobe Walls. Billy Dickson was there, and claims to have killed one of parker’s men from a mile away. Aftermath: failure for parker and Comanche’s. Gives a reason for US gov to attack Red River War: Surrender June 1875. Parker and men surrender to us government, and Indian power is destroyed. South Dakota: Indians feeling pressure, because black hills discovery of gold. All of the farmers who were brought out by railroad, and are searching for gold at black hills. They don’t care that its native American land. If they give the gold to the us, they will give them 6 million dollars. The farmers say no, but then us government takes it for free. Sitting Bull rallies his men “ we must stand together, or they will kill us separately. They want war? We’ll give it to them” They raise 3 thousand people to fight us military. Us military sends out to challenge them. This takes place June 1876 at little big horn. 3 thousand Indians led by sue gather at little big horn. Custer had been sent with 256 men and Custer rides right into the middle of the 3 thousand Indians, and he and he and his men were immediately killed. This was the battle of little big horn. This marks the highest point of Indian resistance during this time period. Many people were turned against the native Americans, and us military now has excuse to send more men. The Indians get hunted down by us military. This is called wars, but in reality, the Indians were being chased. In 1874, they surrender. By mid 1880s, Indian power is overthrown. Almost all Indians are surrounded, captured, and put into reservations by US. They are placed on small islands, and are “trapped”. They are considered foreign entities. Us promised to give them food, blankets, and supplies. But rations often didn’t come through, or come through at all. What they were given was usually terrible. Life on these reservations was completely different than anything they have ever experienced. Felt like prison to them. There was a big effort by US to change, Indians into “good American citizens”. Deconstruct the Indian, and construct a n American citizen “kill the Indian, save the man”. Lets turn these Indians into farmers, and force them to be farmers, that way we don’t have to send them government rations. In 1887, the dawes act.- to all the comanches, go live here. US gov’t granted 150million acres of land to the tribes. Then they would begin to give 160 acres to each native American families. They didn’t have a choice they had to go. But then there was a ton of land left so US sold it. They began with 150 million acres of land, but then after moving them to smaller land, and splitting it up, it dwindled to 77 million acres by 1990 Dec 1890-- -350 indians go to wounded knee, us kills and battle happens, 170 women men and children are killed With defeat of Indians ,anglos have control of plains. Realize they cant farm there. Drought that hits plains in 1880s. cant grow anything. Adapt to something called dry farming. Where you spread out to many acres and grow a whole lot more. Grazing then occurs for animals such as cows. South turns to cotton farming, nobody wants the cotton.


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