Soc 110 Week 3 Notes
Soc 110 Week 3 Notes SOC 110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Dominguez on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Elizabeth Legerski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Week Three Notes 2/8 Can social phenomena be studied “scientifically?” 1. No, people are too random or yes, people are predictable 2. Another both/and issues Research Process : Report findings and peer review -> Choose issues and define problems -> Review the literature /\ | | \/ Collect and analyze data -> Design project, operationalize variables-> Develop Hypothesis Design and Operationalization: 1. Ex: what is love? Conceptualization- define concepts Operationalization- design measures 2. Ex: are moral values more important to republican or democratic voters? Research Models: 1. Quantitative Deductive (start with theory) Surveys, opinions polls, secondary data, experiments Large samples 2. Qualitative Inductive (start with observations) Ethnographies, interviews, focus groups, historical, content analysis Small sample Experiments: 1. Independent variable (cause) -> dependent variable (effect/outcome) 2. Ex: using field experiments to study discrimination 3. Benefits: control variables, replicable 4. Disadvantages: can’t control for everything ethics Some Challenges: 1. Is perfect predictability possible? No, but we can establish probability 2. Difficult to establish causality Correlation doesn’t equal causation 3. Must avoid overstating the results Ex: study of GPA, gender, and drinking 2/10 Organizations and Power 1. Networks shape our access to organizations Tend to be homogenous Reproduce inequalities 2. Organizations take on the characteristics of the people who fill the positions within it 3. Ex: Kanter, gendered nature of corporations facilitates harassment, pay gap, glass ceiling Field work 1. Types: participant observation, ethnography, and in-depth interview Participant observation: participate in organization pretending to be a participant in order to study the group Ethnography: open about being a researcher and studies a group In-depth interview: asks direction questions Ex: gender play (studies how boys and girls play out genders) 2. Benefits: great detail, provides real voices, and meanings of things 3. Disadvantages: hard to generalize due to small sample size Surveys 1. Ex: stressed out freshman 2. Sampling is key- should be truly “random” (equal probability of selection), systematic 3. Benefits: can sample many people, allows generalizability 4. Disadvantages: easily corrupted, hard to interpret 5. Ex: answer options matter (how you ask the question) Secondary analysis: 1. Use existing data sources-like the Census, General 2. Ex: American Community Survey 3. Benefits: cheap and lots of data 4. Disadvantages: no control over content Content Analysis: 1. Use existing “texts” (might include visual or audio content, ect.) 2. Benefits: can quantitatively analyze qualitative characteristics 3. Disadvantages: biases in coding More Challenges: 1. Maintaining objectivity 2. Is it possible to completely remove our values, ideals, beliefs? 3. Avoiding bias Do our best to be value neutral 4. Ethic concerns Institutional review boards (IRB), monitor projected subjects
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