ANT 160, Week 3 of Notes
ANT 160, Week 3 of Notes ANT 160
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneissa Coulter on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture #4 Outline February 1, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Conflicts that Occur Between Indigenous/Ethnic Identities and the State Imagined ExCommunities: Race and Its Social Constructions •Definitions found in: Conrad Phillip Kottack and Kathryn A. Kozaitis. 2003. On Being Different. Diversity and Multiculturalism in the North American Mainstream. Second edition. McGrawHill, New York, NY. •Race = A culturally defined category and manner of organizing human individuals and populations based on assumed shared physical (usually phenotypic) characteristics. •Social race = Groups assumed to have a biological basis but actually are defined in a culturally arbitrary, rather than scientific, manner. •Based on historic goals to classify all animals into groups (phylogeny). •Later used as a tripartite system during the Colonial period (late 1800 to 1900’s) to keep “white” Europeans separated from their “black” African and “yellow” Asian subjects. •Such classifications attempt to place specific groups of people into isolated distinct groups and are supposed to reflect shared genetic (genotypic) material. •However, such attempts have tended to use phenotypic traits (usually skin color) for racial classification and these are the same traits used to assign arbitrary cultural values to groups. •Racism= beliefs about categorical superiority and inferiority of socially defined groups assumed to shred biological characteristics. •Intrinsic racism = the belief that a perceived racial (supposed biological) difference is a sufficient reason to value on person less than another •Stereotypes = fixed ideas, often unfavorable, about what members of a group are like. •Race and racism: the unsustainable invention of biological racial differences. •Racial classification from the biological perspective: The invalidity of categories based on phenotypic traits. In a population, phenotypic traits vary and not all members of a population are exactly the same phenotypically. •The range of phenotypic traits of a population may change without genetic changes. •Examples •Cranial differences. •For instance the size of the cranium or other parts of the body may be related to the diet of the individual and group. For example the changes in skull form and height among children of European immigrants. •Shape of the cranium may also be due to cultural practices indicating status and group membership such as occurred with the prehispanic Maya, Inca, and other indigenous groups of Central and South America. 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture #4 Outline February 1, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World •Color of skin: it is a product of the production of a protein (melanin) that protects the body in tropical areas: 1. From ultraviolet light and skin cancer. 2. From burning and allows the body to sweat, and reduce the body temperature. 3. Protects the body from overproduction of vitamin D. •Light color is an advantage in areas with low exposure to light and production of vitamin D. Possible Reasons for Racism •To establish an ascribed hierarchy in a society not based on kinship but on perceived physical characteristics. •The need to differentiate group membership. •Why? Racism is a means of restricting access to resources. •It is used to justify, explain and preserve a group’s privileged social position by declaring “the other” (other groups) innately or in other words biologically inferior. •Examples •Sports and race issues: Just plain racism and segregation explain the differences. •Culture and the environment define success in sports not biology. Physical activities, including sports which are influenced by culture, help build phenotype. Appropriate sports to play, appropriate behaviors for genders, location of growth, interests etc., all affect a person’s physical abilities. •Race and IQ: Just another form of racist justification. Variation in knowledge is cultural not biological. •IQ tests measure economic and social background and education, but nothing else. Some people may be smarter than others but this cannot be generalized to whole populations. •How do you measure intelligence? If you base it on formal knowledge that is taught, than the education of a person is being measured and there is differential access to education. •In one early study (Klineberg 1951) Native Americans from reservations did poorly on intelligence testing but with the development of better school systems their scores improved dramatically. •Race and racism are social and historical constructions. •Race is situational: It is based on categorization done by someone else. It reflects relations of labor, economic relations, social relations. 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture #4 Outline February 1, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World •Race and ethnicity both are situational. (The categorizations termed “Imagined Communities” will be covered later. These change based on the situation of the individual and group). Ideologies of Segregation • Institutional segregation: US and Institutional Segregation, race and ethnicity: a product of government policies. Example: apartheid in South Africa, USA up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. •United States Supreme Court Cases Regarding Racism, Segregation, and Civil Rights. •See www.crmvet.org for further information. •1896. Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned "separate but equal" segregation of the races. •1954. The Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. •1956. Buses are desegregated in Montgomery, Alabama after a boycott lead by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. lasts a year following Rosa Parks arrest for not giving up her seat to a white bus rider. •1963. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “I Have a Dream Speech.” •1963. The 24 Amendment to the Constitution abolishes the poll tax that had occurred in 11 southern states to make it difficult for poor black and white people to vote. •1964. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination of all kinds, based on race, color, religion, or national origin. •1965. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 makes literacy tests, taxes and other hindrances to register to vote illegal. •1967. In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Incidentally, the film Guess Who's Coming to Dinner was released six months later (December 1967) and dealt with the subject of interracial marriage and starred Sidney Poitier, Spencer Tracy, Katherine Hepburn and her niece Katherine Houghton. Directed by Stanley Kramer and written by William Rose. •1968. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. 3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture #4 Outline February 1, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World •1988. Overriding President Reagan’s veto, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which expands the reach of nondiscrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds. •1991. President Bush signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, strengthening existing civil rights laws and providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination. •In the most important affirmative action decision since the 1978 Bakke case, the Supreme Court (5–4) upholds the University of Michigan Law School's policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered by colleges when selecting their students because it furthers "a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body." Other Issues Related to Race •Affirmative Action = Policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, educational or employment. Some refer to this as positive discrimination. •Racist Ideologies today: Ascription based on color or ethnicity. •Hypodescent = Rule that automatically assigns children of a mixed union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in less privileged group. Common in the US. •The ideology of compromise: example Brazil. One’s class/status affects one’s racial classification (“money whitens”). •In this case race can change based on class membership (not found in US where race assignment stays the same regardless of class). •The category of Indian and Cabôclos. Cabôclos is a term for assimilated indigenous people in Brazil. •Example of the races you can choose from on the US 2010 Census Form 9. What is Person 1’s race? Mark K one or more boxes. White Black, African Am., or Negro American Indian or Alaska Native — Print name of enrolled or principal tribe. Asian Indian Chinese Filipino Other Asian — Print race, for example, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on. C Japanese Korean Vietnamese Native Hawaiian Guamanian or Chamorro Samoan Other Pacific Islander — Print race, for example, Fijian, Tongan, and so on. Some other race – Print race. 4 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture #4 Outline February 1, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World From http://2010.census.gov/2010census/about/interactiveform.php see Data Explore the Form 2010 Census •Solutions: The elimination of ascribed categories. •When conflicts occur, individuals have the choice of retreating into more constrained aspects of territoriality in space and time (i.e. reassertion of ethnicity, religious identity, family values) or they can embrace notions of the state (i.e. secular or religious) in their dealings with others. 5 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Migration in Prehistoric Times Migration has been and is a basic aspect of human adaptations. There are three well researched phases of human migration in prehistory and a fourth in historic times. Information from: Peter Bellwood. 2013. First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective. Wiley, Blackwell, Malden, MA. 1. Migrations of the extinct members of the genus Homo, erectus and Neanderthals, after about 2.5 million years ago, within and out of Africa. 2. Migrations of ancestral modern humans (Homo sapiens) throughout most of the world including Australia and the Americas, between about 120,000 and 25,000 years ago. 3. Migrations of herders, farmers, and boat builders in a number of separate waves in various parts of the world except Antarctica during the last 10,000 years. 4. The fourth historic migration phase or “diaspora” involved ca. 150 million people in three waves peaking in the 1840s and the 1950s. One wave went from western Europe to the Americas and Australasia. Another went from India and China to the Indian Ocean rim, Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific. A third migration went from Russia and China into central and northeastern Asia. Bellwood (2013:5) notes: “But, in my view, the real energy behind the world’s major colonizing migrations was human and demographic, in the sense that increasing human populations required new resources, especially territory, and more so if other groups or declining environmental conditions impinged on a longterm basis on the territories they already held.” 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Peopling of the Americas or New World What were the environmental conditions? Where did they come from? How did they get here? How did they adapt and organize themselves? When did they arrive? Pleistocene conditions (1.9 million11,000 years BP) Glaciers and lower sea levels. Cooler temperatures. Generally drier conditions (through some areas were wetter). Localized , isolated “refuges” of plant and animal species. Environmental zones were mixed and not always distinct. Where did they come from? Skeletal Evidence DNA / Molecular Biology Evidence Native North Americans descended from 34 populations. 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Native South Americans appear to be descended from one main population. Founder Principle Linguistic Evidence Multiple Migrations How did they adapt and organize themselves? Huntergatherersfishers Megafauna Smaller game animals (deer) Various wild plants (nuts, fruits, tubers, and rhizomes) Small bands Mobile Relatively egalitarian Communal decisionmaking Leadership was impermanent and based on age, ability, or group consent Simple domestic structures Technology Various implements made from stone, wood, hide, bone, plant fibers. Religion based on anthropomorphized entities in nature. Supernatural forces and spirits emanate from or inhabit elements of nature. Shamans: parttime religious practitioners who negotiate between the supernatural realm and humans. 3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Healers. Colonize a pristine habitat (likely along the coasts first). Settle in. Reproduce. Daughter colonies “budded off” to repeat the process. Likely stairstep colonization pattern in the high mountains. Examples of Archaeological Sites in North America with Evidence of Early Human Occupation Meadowcroft Rockshelter 16,000 Radiocarbon years BP Other Early Sites Cactus Hill (ca. 15,000 – 17,000 BP) Topper Site (ca. 16,000 BP) Clovis Site (13,000 – 13,500 BP) Lindenmeier Site (ca.11,000 BP) Cultural Evolution: North America Paleoindian Period (47,000 – 10,000 BP) Archaic Period (10,000 – 3,000 BP) Woodland Period (3,000 – 1,000 BP [AD 1,000]) 4 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Mississippian/Fort Ancient Period (1,000 – 300 BP [AD 1,0001700]) Cultural Evolution: Mesoamerica Paleoindian Period (35,000/ 14,000 – 8,000 B.C.) Archaic Period (8,000 – 2,000 B.C.) Preclassic or Formative Period (ca. 2,000B.C. – A.D. 300) Classic Period (A.D. 300 – 900) Postclassic Period (A.D. 900 – 1521) Meadowcroft Rockshelter Located near Avella, Washington County, southwestern Pennsylvania. Rockshelter located in a wooded area overlooking Cross Creek, a tributary to the Ohio River in the Allegheny Plataea, west of the Appalachian Mountains. The site has yielded Paleoindian, Archaic, and Woodland remains. The site has yielded PreClovis lithic remains at depths of ca. 11.5 feet beneath ground surface. Also recovered were remains of pottery, lithic blades, bifaces, a lanceolate projectile point, chipping debris, animal remains of up to 149 species, and plant remains including corn, squash, fruits, nuts, and other seeds. The Clovis Site This tradition may be indicative of population movements or the adoption of a superior lithic technology. 5 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Well known for the lithic tools named “Clovis Points” which are bifacial and typically fluted on both sides. Tools were first identified in 1936 – 1938 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, located near Clovis, New Mexico. Later PostClovis traditions or horizons include Folsom, Gainey, SuwanneeSimpson, Plainview Goshen, Cumberland, and Redstone. The sites in these traditions are known for big game hunting. Lindenmeier Site Located in northern Colorado in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Excavations cover over 1800 square meters. More than 15,000 animal bones recovered including wolf, coyote, fox, hare, rabbit, turtle, deer, antelope and bison. Approximately 50,000 lithic artifacts and bone artifacts recovered including Folsom points, needles, and beads. Other sites Cactus Hill: located in southeastern Virginia on sand dunes overlooking the Nottoway River. Multiple occupation levels including PreClovis remains from 15,00017,000 BP and fluted stone tools of the Clovis Culture dated to 10,920 BP. Topper Site: located along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina. PreClovis remains recovered possibly dating to 16,000 BP. Earlier carbonized remains and possible lithic tools dated to 50,000 BP are disputed. 6 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Examples of Archaeological Sites in South America with Evidence of Early Human Occupation Cultural Evolution: South America Lithic Period (ca. 14,850 – 4500 BP) Early and Middle Preceramic Period Preceramic Period (ca. 4500 – 4000 BP) Late Preceramic Period Initial Period (ca. 4000 – 2700 BP) Early Horizon (ca. 2700 – 2000 BP) Early Intermediate Period ( ca. 2000 – 1400 BP) Middle Horizon (ca. 1400 – 1000 BP) Late Intermediate Period (ca. 1000 BP – 500 BP) Late Horizon (ca. 500 BP – European Contact in AD 1532) Colonization Process: How did they get here? Monte Verde 12,500 Radiocarbon years BP Other Early Sites TaimaTaima (ca.13,000 BP) TaguaTagua (11,400 BP) Quebrada Jaguay (11,100 BP) Pedra Pintada (ca.11,200 BP) Increase in sites ~11,00010,000 BP 7 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 5 Outline February 3, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Monte Verde Substantial Evidence of human occupation Human footprint Dwellings of different forms Wooden artifacts Projectile points Other stone tools Animal bones Edible and Medicinal plant remains Cooking hearths Activities Domestic activities (likely communal) Processing of game Ritual feasting Preparation of herbal medicines Possibly shamanistic healing Diet Mastodon Camelids Small Game Plants Likely yearround occupation 8
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