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Week 6 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Week 6 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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These are our notes for the materials covered in our week 6 module. I created notes for chapter 3, the consonant article, the two videos, and partial notes for the vowel article. The notes for the ...
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Week  6  Notes   Phonology   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   February  2016     Learning  Outcomes:   •   articulate  what  phonology  entails.   •   use  the  International  Phonetic  Alphabet  (IPA)  symbols  to  transcribe  words.   •   use  phonological  elements  in  your  teaching  practice.   •   understand  challenges  of  learning  L2  especially  with  different  L1  sound  systems.   •   be  cognizant  of  the  phonological  properties  behind  accents.     Readings/References:   Celce-­‐Murcia,  M.,  Brinton,  D.,  &  Goodwin,  J.  M.  (1996).  Teaching  pronunciation:  A  reference  for     teachers  of  English  to  speakers  of  other  languages.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University     Press.   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Phonology:  Why  languages  sounds  different  to  second     language  learners.  In  Applying  linguistics  in  the  classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.     42-­‐66).  New  York:  Routledge.     Acronyms:   •   International  phonetic  alphabet  =  IPA     Chapter  3  Notes   Introduction   •   every  language  has  specific  structural  rules  that  govern  the  way  sounds  are  allowed  to   come  together  to  make  words   •   Phonology:  study  of  how  speech  sounds  are  structured  based  on  rules  in  a  given   language   o   Linguists  use  phonology  to  look  at  form/structure  of  a  language  to  explain  how   language  is  ordered  in  the  human  mind   o   Predicted  on  assumption  that  languages  are  rule  governed  and  systematic   o   Predictable  and  consistent  across  speakers   •   Phonetics:  study  of  speech  sounds   o   First  and  most  basic  level  of  analysis  that  seeks  to  describe  the  physical  features   of  a  sound   o   Physical  qualities  that  make  up  a  sound   o   Direct,  measurable  science  that  is  based  on  the  description  of  sounds  based  on   articulation,  voicing,  and  acoustic  quality   •   Phonemes:  group  of  sounds  that  speakers  of  language  recognize  as  one  sound   o   Sound  the  language  user  believes  to  be  there   o   Not  the  physical  sounds  that  a  speaker  creates  but  rather  the  phonological  units   that  make  a  difference  in  meaning  in  language   •   IPA:  summary  of  the  sounds  in  all  languages  in  the  world  and  how  to  describe  them   o   no  language  makes  every  sound  on  the  chart     Basic  concepts  of  phonology   •   Description  of  IPA  chart   o   Every  sound  has  an  official  name  consisting  of  the  voicing,  place  of  articulation,   and  the  constriction  of  airflow   o   Some  boxes  have  two  symbols:   §   Right  is  voiced   §   Left  is  voiceless   o   Left  column  explains  how  airflow  in  the  mouth  is  constricted   §   Plosive:  airflow  stops  completely  /b/   §   Nasal:  air  comes  out  of  the  nose,  not  the  mouth  /m/   §   Trills:  continuous  stopping  and  movement  of  air  “r”  in  Spanish   §   Taps/flaps:  brief  stop  in  airflow  /t/   §   Fricative:  airflow  continues  but  is  constrained  /f/   §   Lateral  fricatives:  “l”  sound  if  mouth  is  flatter  and  made  a  hissing  noise   (do  not  occur  in  English)   §   Lateral  approximants:  allow  air  through  mouth  like  /l/     o   Top  line  specifies  place  of  articulation  –  where  articulator  most  constricts  the   airflow   §   Bilabial:  lips  touching  /b/   §   Labiodental:  lip  touches  teeth   §   Dental:  tongue  touching  teeth   §   As  tongue  moves  further  and  further  back  in  mouth   •   Palate-­‐alveolar   •   Retroflex   •   Palatal   •   Velar   •   Uvular   §   Throat  sounds   •   Pharyngeal   •   Epiglottal   •   Glottal     o   Vowels:  allow  the  most  air  and  sound  through  the  mouth  (sonorant)     Potential  challenges  in  learning  English   •   We  have  a  lot  of  “exceptions”  to  the  rules   •   There  are  some  sounds  that  have  more  than  one  grapheme  (digraphs)     •   As  our  language  has  changed  and  evolved,  our  written  language  has  not   •   We  borrow  words  from  other  languages   •   If  a  word  changed  significantly  in  the  way  it  sounds,  the  written  words  remain  similar  so   that  we  do  not  lose  information  or  cannot  determine  that  the  words  have  similar   meanings  or  come  from  same  root  words  (e.g.  medicine,  medical)   •   Phonics  instruction  only  attends  to  the  phonemic  inventory  of  English   •   Second  language  should  be  taught  using  a  combination  of  phonemic  information  as  well   as  graphonic  information,  or  the  visual  information  of  the  word   •   Spanish  speaker  may  have  difficulty  hearing  the  difference  between  /b/  and  /v/  because   these  are  not  two  different  phonemes  in  Spanish   •   Our  vowel  graphemes  do  not  take  into  account  that  there  are  long  and  short  vowels   •   ELLs  often  use  the  language  they  know  to  make  sense  of  this  new  sound  system,  and   they  do  so  in  systematic  ways     Basic  contrastive  analysis   •   Linguists  attempt  to  identify  which  sounds  in  a  language  are  phonemics  through   contrastive  analysis   •   Very  useful  tool  to  compare  the  phonemes  of  English  and  those  of  a  student’s  home   language   •   Charts  can  be  used  to  make  major  predictions  about  ELLs  mistake  patterns   •   Differences  may  lead  to  production  and  comprehension  issues  that  could  cause   misunderstanding   •   Can  be  used  to  understand  the  differences  between  languages  and  understand  our   students’  actual  and  potential  problem  areas     Using  phonological  analyses  to  inform  teaching  practices   •   Phonetic  analysis:  tells  what  physical  qualities  of  a  sound  exist   •   Allophones:  all  sounds  in  a  language  that  speakers  consider  as  one  phoneme   •   Many  of  the  “mistakes”  that  ELLs  make  in  pronunciation  are  due  to  systematic   differences  between  two  or  more  languages  they  speak     Different  types  of  alphabets  and  spelling  conventions   •   Allows  us  to  reach  more  people  simultaneously  and  across  time  faster  than  the  spoken   word   •   Developed  to  address  the  different  problems  facing  cultures  throughout  history   •   Developed  as  a  way  to  describe  the  sounds  of  a  language  (metalanguage)   •   Types  of  alphabets   o   Logographic:  characters  that  more  or  less  represent  words  or  ideas  (Chinese)   o   Syllabic:  writing  based  on  syllables  where  there  is  one  grapheme  per  syllable   (Japanese)   o   Spanish  has  roughly  one  letter/grapheme  to  one  phoneme  correspondence   o   English  has  a  much  more  complex  orthography  than  Spanish;  basically  a   phonemic  writing  system,  meaning  that  its  system  of  writing  is  based  on  how   words  sound   •   Conventional:  alphabets  based  on  phonemes  and  other  features  of  the  language   o   Important:  spelling  is  a  convention,  not  necessarily  a  direct  representation  of  the   sound     Case  Studies:  Spanish   •   Spanish  is  the  most  common  language  spoken  at  home  in  the  United  States  besides   English   •   There  are  11  consonant  phonemes  in  English  that  are  not  in  Spanish   •   Vowel  system  in  Spanish  is  much  less  complex  than  in  English   •   Spanish-­‐speaking  students  are  required  to  learn  the  complex  representation  of  silent   vowels  and  long  and  short  sounds   •   Interdental  sounds  do  not  occur  in  Spanish   •   Spanish  does  not  have  a  /v/  sound,  so  students  can  often  mix  up  their  written  /b/  and   v/v   •   Other  differences:  initial  blends  and  the  glide     Consonant  Handout  Notes   •   There  are  25  English  consonant  sounds   •     •   learners  whose  native  language  has  a  simpler  syllable  structure  tend  to  do  one  of  two   things:   o   simplify  English  words  by  dropping  final  consonants   o   simplify  clusters  by  inserting  extra  vowels  to  create  more  syllables   •   flap  allophone:   o    in  English,  we  voice  and  flap  any  medial  /t/  that  comes  at  the  beginning  of  an   unstressed  syllable  or  occurs  between  voiced  sounds  (fourteen,  master)   o   voicing  and  quick  tongue  flap  on  alveolar  ridge  produces  more  of  a  /d/  sound   than  a  /t/  sound  (water,  butter,  getting,  party)   o   when  to  use  flap   §   in  agent  nouns  ending  in  –er  derived  from  verbs  (writer)   §   in  nouns  ending  in  –ity  (quality)   §   phasal  verbs  ending  in  /t/  (hit)   §   many  phrases  with  prepositions  (a  bite  of)     Vowel  Handout  Notes   •   vowels  are  considered  to  be  the  core  or  peak  of  a  syllable   •   there  are  14  vowels   o   11  are  simple  vowels  or  vowels  with  an   adjacent  glide  (accompanied  by  /y/  or  /w/   /ey/  /ow/)   o   3  are  diphthongs   •   Distinguishers  of  vowel  sounds:   o   which  part  of  the  tongue  is  involved  (front,   central,  back)   o   how  high  the  tongue  is  when  the  sound  is  produced  (high,  mid,  low)   •   rounded  vowels  versus  spread  vowels   o   determined  by  lip  position   o   spread:  /iy/  in  Pete  /i/  in  pit   o   most  open  position:  /a/  in  pot   o   rounded:  /u/  in  put  and  /uw/  in  boot   •   tense  versus  lax  vowels   o   tense:  articulated  with  more  muscle  tension   §   serves  to  stretch  articulation     §   are  usually  accompanied  by  a  glide   §   can  occur  in  both  stressed  open  and  closed  syllables     o   lax:  articulated  with  less  muscle  tension   §   do  not  have  tendency  toward  diphthongization     §   only  occur  in  closed  syllables  of  monosyllabic  words  when  stressed   •   many  S  will  have  difficulty  articulating  difference  between  adjacent  tense  lax  vowel   phonemes  /iy/  and  /ı/   •   vowels  tend  to  lengthen  before  voiced  consonants     Ppt  Slide  Notes   •   English  is  second  most  commonly  spoken  language  after  Mandarin;  spoken  by  2  billion   •   Most  commonly  spoken  L2   •   Three  most  common  problems  of  reading  acquisition:   o   Availability   o   Consistency   o   Granularity   •   Orthographic  depth  hypothesis   o   Deep:  GPC  is  irregular,  opaque,  inconsistent  (English)   o   Shallow:  GPC  is  regular,  consistent,  predictable  (Spanish,  Italian,  Finish,  Korean)   •   In  English,  the  relation  between  the  letter  and  the  sound  is  irregular  and  complex,   because  it  takes  26  alphabetic  letters  in  more  than  100  combinations  to  represent  44   different  speech  sounds.   •   Irregularities  of  English   o   Intraword   o   Homographs:  same  sound,  same,  word,  different  meaning   o   Homophones:  same  sound,  different  spelling,  different  meaning   o   Heteronyms:  same  spelling,  different  pronunciation,  different  meaning   o   Multi-­‐words:  look  after   o   Idioms:  kick  the  bucket   o   Collocations:  fast  food   o   Coordinates   o   Subordinates   o   Relative   o   sentence     Consonant  Video  Notes   •   Teaching  tip:  Do  not  refer  to  actual  letter  but  break  down  into  component  features   •   Three  features:   o   Place  of  articulation:  Where  in  your  mouth  do  you  make  the  sound   §   Bilabial  (involving  both  lips)   §   Dental  (tongue  against  teeth)   §   Alveolar  (tongue  against  back  of  gum  ridge  above  upper  teeth  /s/)   §   Postalveolar  (Tongue  further  back  towards  pallet  /sh/)   §   Palatal  (tongue  on  roof  of  mouth  /yuh/)   §   Velar  /k/   §   Glottal  /uh/   o   Manner  of  articulation:  how  you  pronounce  sound   §   Nasal:  air  through  nose  /m/   §   Stop/plosive:  stop  air  /k/   §   Fricative:  to  rub,  continuous  restricting  hissing  air  flow   §   Approximant:     o   Voicing:  letting  vocal  cords  in  voice  box  vibrate  together   §   Voiced  sound:  typical  vowels  are  voiced   §   Voiceless:  no  vibration  in  throat     Vowel  Video  Notes   •   Teaching  tip:  Do  not  refer  to  actual  letter  but  break  down  into  component  features   •    Features     o   height:  position  of  jaw  when  making  sound  or  how  close  tongue  is  to  roof  of   mouth   §   open:  I  u   §   mid:  e  o   §   close:  a   o   backness:  how  far  forward/back  tongue  is  in  mouth   §   front:  i  e   §   central:  a   §   back:  o  u  


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