Man's Food (FOS2001) Module 2, Lesson 8
Man's Food (FOS2001) Module 2, Lesson 8 FOS 2001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
FOS2001 Man's Food Notes Module 2 Lesson 8 Carbohydrates Part 1: The Mighty Carb Terms: (you don't need to memorize all of these for the tests - just be familiar with them****) • Complex carbohydrates compounds with combined sugar units (ex/ polysaccharide) • Diabetes a medical condition where an individual doesn’t have enough insulin/resistant to available insulin • Disaccharides two sugar units combined (sucrose, lactose, and maltose) • Fiber nondigestible polysaccharide • Fructose aka fruit sugar; sweetest monosaccharide • Galactose monosaccharide that combines with to create the glucose that is found in dairy products • Glucagon hormone that directs glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to increase glucose in blood • Glucose most abundant sugar in foods and energy source in body • Glycogen storage form of glucose in humans/animals • Glycogenesis The process of converting excess glucose into glycogen in your liver and muscle • Glycogenolysis The breakdown of glycogen to release glucose • Hormones chemical messengers in the body that start specific actions • Insuli a hormone from the pancreas that brings glucose from the blood in to your cells • Maltose disaccharide composed of two glucose units • Monosaccharide one sugar unit (glucose, fructose, and galactose) • Photosynthesis the process where green plants make carbohydrates using energy from sunlight • Polysaccharides numerous sugar units combined (starch, glycogen, fiber) • Simple carbohydrate single sugar unit or two combined • Starch storage form of glucose in plants • Sucrose disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose (aka table sugar) Carbohydrates and the American Diet • Current American diet ◦ 48% of calories from carbs ◦ 40% of calories from fat ◦ 12% of calories from protein • Ideal diet based on dietary recommendations ◦ 60% of calories from carbs ◦ 30% of calories from fat ◦ 10% of calories from protein • Simplest of carbohydrates = C6H12O6 • Carbohydrates are surrounded by water • Plants give us the bulk of carbs in our diet • Sucrose can also come from plants through photosynthesis and appear on the stems of plants • Glucose is stored as plant starch and is the energy source for plants Types of Carbohydrates • Glucose (aka dextrose/blood sugar) ◦ What health professionals look at when examining your blood ◦ Hub of carb energy ◦ The first carb made by plants and is the main carb needed by the cell during digestion • Fructose (aka levulose/fruit sugar) ◦ Sugar found in fruits ◦ Twice as sweet as table sugar • Galactose ◦ Primarily in animal tissue ◦ Part of disaccharide lactose (commonly in milk • Monosaccharides form in a ring shape and have five or six sides • The position of the hydroxyl groups on the ring are what make monosaccharides different form one another Disaccharides • Sucrose (aka table sugar/refined sugar/white sugar) ◦ These sugars are made of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose ◦ Linked together by eliminating water • Maltose (aka beer sugar) ◦ Product of grain starches ◦ Carbohydrate used for fermentation ◦ Made of two glucose molecules linked together ◦ Can be used in the fermentation process to make alcoholic beverages • Lactose (aka milk sugar) ◦ Consists one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose ◦ Found in the body and mammary gland ◦ Derived from animal sources like milk Polysaccharides • Polymers of glucose • Starch ◦ Digestible by humans ◦ Different amounts found in different plants ◦ Natural starches are made of amylose (straight chain form of starch) and amylopectin (branched chain form of starch) • Glycogen ◦ Animal starch and is found in animal tissue ◦ Main storage carbohydrate for animal products ◦ Digestible • Fiber ◦ Not digestible but a beneficial component of carbohydrates ◦ Most common type is cellulose ◦ both starch and fiber are made of glucose Part 2: The Function of Carbohydrates CarbRich food • The sugars and starches in our diet • Sugars ◦ Water soluble ◦ Have crystalline structure ◦ Sweet to the taste • Starches ◦ Form a paste when added to water ◦ Swell when heated ◦ Usually bland to taste ◦ Have viscosity Commercial Sugars • In the US the natural human desires for sweets are normally satisfied by eating sugary products • Honey is a commonly used sweetener (it is predigested sugar) • The #1 type of sweetener used commercially in the US is corn syrup ◦ Used in beverage and food manufacturing • Fructose is more economical to produce because it is twice as sweet • Starch from the cornseparation process can be converted to another type of sweetener in foods and sugar alcohol Dietary Guidelines Regarding Sugar • 2006 Dietary Guidelines for Americans underscores importance of limiting the amount of sugar intake • There is no way for consumers to tell if a food's total sugars are natural or added by reading the food label • Dietary professionals and others are interested in looking at the amount of "added" sugars that can go to an online table ◦ Table prepared by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) nutritionists • In this table, added sugars are defined as those added to foods and drinks during processing Refined Carbohydrates • When picking foods based on carbohydrate value, consider whether or not they contain refined carbs • The amount of carbohydrate nutrient given by a food is listed on it's label Fiber • Fiber is nondigestible and we benefit from fiber's ability to pass directly through the body • A diet that is high in fiber is believed to reduce the risk of diverticular, cancer, and heart diseases • Fiber lowers cholesterol which can reduce heart disease • Fiber can be soluble or insoluble • Fiber intake should be about 2530 grams per day from different sources • Drinking water helps to hydrate the fiber and move digestive system along Part 3: The Glycemic Index Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) • The body needs glucose to have enough energy • After you eat blood absorbs glucose and if you eat more than you need then the muscles and liver store the extra • When blood sugar begins to fall, hormones have the liver release glucose ◦ This raises blood sugar for most people if it doesn't then you have hypoglycemia • Signs ◦ Hunger, shakiness, dizziness, confusion, hard time speaking, feeling anxious/weak • While eating carbohydrates ◦ Blood glucose has a tendency to rise into the blood stream ◦ That rise allows the pancreas to release insulin ◦ The insulin signals the cells to take in glucose and regulate levels • You can take a glucose tolerance test Glucose Tolerance Test • Helps predict where your body falls in relation to blood glucose levels • Average blood glucose levels: 80 mg percentage120 mg percentage • Hypoglycemic blood levels: levels rise above 120 mg percentage and then rapidly come down (usually drops below 80 mg percentage) Diabetes • Disease associated with high glucose levels in the blood/inability to adequately regulate glucose levels • Diabetes can occur at any stage in life (but greater risk after 40 or overweight) • Two major types ◦ Type 1: juvenile diabetes • Not related to obesity but genetic • Body does not produce enough insulin • Individual takes injections of insulin to regulate levels ◦ Type 2: adult onset diabetes • Lifestyle factors that put adult at risk for this type (overweight/high stress) • Body is resistant to insulin for this type but can also include insulin deficiency • About 9095% of diabetes cases are Type 2 Diabetes Consequences • Can cause excessive urination, dehydration, excessive thirst, adverse effects to the kidney, and damage to body proteins • With diabetes, cells can’t take in glucose, which results in cells breaking down fat and protein • Increased susceptibility to disease and infection Lactose Intolerance • Not related to diabetes • Disorder where the body cannot digest milk sugars, primarily lactose • 80% of adults are lactose intolerance • Lactose builds up in the body because of a deficiency in the lactose enzyme • These consequences are not lifethreatening but they are uncomfortable Carbs and Dental Health • Large amounts of carbs can cause tooth decay • Tooth decay has three requirements: ◦ Bacterial plaque/bacteria in the mouth ◦ Introduction of sugar or starch to the mouth ◦ A tooth that is susceptible to sugars/starches contained in carbs ◦ When food in ingested: the common bacteria in the mouth ferment the sugars, causing acid to form, which degrades tooth's enamel ◦ Frequency and type of sugar are important ◦ Prolonged exposure to sugar from milk is one of the biggest reasons for developing tooth decay
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