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GHY Lecture 4 Notes

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by: Haylie Wilson

GHY Lecture 4 Notes GHY 1012

Haylie Wilson
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Covers Lecture: Weather and Climate More notes to come in a bundle before exam.
Global Change in the Bioshpere
Dr. Martin
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylie Wilson on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GHY 1012 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Martin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Global Change in the Bioshpere in Geography at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Geography Lecture 4: Weather and Climate Climate- long term characteristics of weather- long period of time (1000 years) 30 yrs and longer Weather- day to day basis (h WEATHER CREATES CLIMATE Major difference- period of time -The reason we have different climates/weather is because of the uneven distribution of the energy from the sun. -Circulation of energy movement is what drives movement of air. We’re all experiencing atmospheric pressure. Avgs 1013.2 mb, depending on location H and L are showing different areas of high pressure and low pressure. High pressure: (blue H) Air is sinking towards the earth’s surface, which creates higher pressure. COLD AREAS=HIGH PRESSURE because COLD, DENSE air SINKS. “Nice Day”- because if air is SINKING then we are preventing air from rising- and we have to have AIR RISING for PRECIPITATION RISING AIR=PRECIPITATION As air rises it gets cooler/creates precipitation. Air is always forced away from HIGH pressure zones… forced out clockwise. Low Pressure (Red L) RISING AIR (no pressure pushing air down) Not nice days RISING AIR causes PRECIPITATION because air cools as it rises LOWEST pressures recorded have been recorded in the eye of hurricanes (air is being sucked up) AIR is DRAWN to LOW PRESSURE areas.- counter clockwise Wind is intimately related to pressure. Wind- a vertical movement of air caused by differences in pressure -also, TURBULENCE Air attracted to low pressure Air moves away from high pressure It moves from areas of LP and HP Pressure Gradient Force: Air will always move from HP to LP (think of popping a balloon) The greater the distance in pressure, the stronger the wind. Areas of LP and HP are close in distance, not a strong wind. Areas of LP and HP very far in distance, very strong wind. Pressure represented by isobars (same bars) (ISO=“SAME”) Iso bars- pressure gradient. Almost like a topograph Coriolis Force: A deflective force that comes from the earth’s rotation and results In the change of direction of a liquid or a gas. Think of globe in a tank of water spinning. – water spins in different directions because of friction Earth does this, but with the atmosphere. If you flew from the North Pole to Quito, you would have to curve to account for the earths movement. Air in Northern Hemisphere is being deflected to THE RIGHT Air in Southern Hemisphere is being deflected to THE LEFT Equatorial Low Pressure Trough- at the equator we experience a lot of LOW PRESSURE=clouds and precipitation. Not all directly on the equator. Zig Zags along equator. This is the “Intertropical Convergence Zone” WHY IS THIS HERE? Equator is hot, so air rises and low pressure. ANDDD convergence of air. Comes together from north and south, can’t go north or south, so it goes UP. Summer- so it’s warmer in northern hemisphere. That’s why it’s more north. Hadley Cells So air rising begins to move north and south Around 30º N and S, air looses energy and begins to descend When it reaches the surface again, it curls back around and comes back to the ITCZ (because its attracted to low pressure) These are HADLEY CELLS (the little circulations) Hadley cells are responsible for TRADE WINDS They create high pressure Then wind comes down from the high pressure areas Subtropical High Pressure Cells Descending air (going back down to the ITCZ) causes the high pressure areas The HIGH PRESSURE AREAS are these Subtropical High Pressure Cells. between 20º and 35º N and S Hot dry conditions Polar fronts- Warm air from subtropical high meets cold weather form subpolar low. The past few years we’ve been in migration where polar areas are bringing air down to the south. Air descends from the poles Cold air sinking Also creates a polar easterlies- wind. Some areas don’t experience seasonal change, some do. Reasons for Seasons: Those winds Rotation of earth Tilt of the earth Earth revolving All of this causes different amounts of solar radiation at different times of the year Earth around the sun- 1yr Earth spins around- 24 hrs Equator- 12hrs sun, 12hrs darkness- no flux Circle of illumination- divides the earth into the half that’s in the sun and the half that’s in the dark. As earth revolves around sun, the tilt does not change. Because of that, in our revolution, the north hemisphere has been facing the sun and also has changed to not facing the sun • Winter solstice—December 21 or 22 – Subsolar point=Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S) • Vernal equinox (Spring)—March 20 or 21 – Subsolar point=Equator (0º) • Summer solstice—June 20 or 21 – Subsolar point=Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N) • Autumnal equinox—September 22 or 23 – Subsolar point=Equator (0º)


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