Week 1 Online Lecture, Readings, Class Notes
Week 1 Online Lecture, Readings, Class Notes HIS 121
Popular in United States History 1914-1945
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 121 at University of Kentucky taught by Lacey Sparks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see United States History 1914-1945 in History at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Week 1 Online Lecture: A Century of Peace, A Longing for War? 1815-1914 Europe’s Century of Peach After Napoleonic wars ending in 1815 became Battle of Waterloo (June 18, 1815) 1. All major powers of Europe 2. Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of French Army controlling most of Europe 3. Defeated by British and Persians at battle of Waterloo No more wars until WWI in 1914 Devastating wars in Africa and China, even America during this time Reasons for peace 1. Prevent of reoccurrence of event like rise of Napoleon Occurred through Peace Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Europe needed balance of power (Concert of Europe) 5 Major Powers: Great Britain, Russia Austria, France Kingdom of Prussia 2. Economic and Technological progress Industrial Revolution improves peoples lives Doubling of average wages Improve nutrition of health Urbanization: stimulating and more entertainment Ex: World Fair 1851 at Crystal Palace Suggested cooperation and war was thing of the past 3. Growth of World Trade Convinced democracies are peaceful Ordinary votes would not vote for policies requiring to fight International Peace Conference: discussed hot to prevent wars and hot wto make them more humaine First Geneva Convention 1814 Defined rules Protect civillians st 1 of several conventions 4. Women’s suffrage Allowing their opinions to vote not to go to war 5. Socialist Movement Norman Angel wrote how expensive it would be to go to war/unthinkable Socialists argue that only industrialists go to war Forces of peace were overpowered by 4 forces of war 1. Nationalism Societies are divided by culture and language Italian states unified Unification of Germany by Otto Van Bismark as a proclamation of German Empire Success demonstrated war was a way for success 2. Militarization Annexation of territory (Alsace-Loraine belonging to France) Continuous provocation Reminded possibility of war Irritation between France and Germany provoking possibility of war Bismark and Prussian General Staff had plan for war in advance, building weapons and territory All countries began planning Impossible to limit or prevent Universal Military Conscription-all men should be a part of Army for some years then go Reserve (all countries inherit except Great Britain) Celebrate military holidays Most elaborate plan was German Schlieffen Plan in 1914 Plan XVII Against France and Russia Defeat French quicly by crossing Belgium surrounding from rear Lost chance of war being avioded 3. Imperialism Agquire oversea colonies Russian Empire grew enormously British leader Cecil Rhodes trying to keep Germany from getting share of territory Congress of Berlin 1855, how countries would divide Africa Europe went to brink of war before WWI Fashada Crisis Between Britain and France over Sudan 1898 Boer War- soldiers against civilians in South Africa 1901 4. Positive Culture Herbert Spencer argued warfare gone too far Social Darwinism=humanity divided by rival races Societies develop through competition Friedrich Von Bernhardi claimed human species required competition/Biological and moral necessity Keiser Vilhelm-defeated against “Yellow Peril”: east Asian people are danger Germany’s ruler WWI Max Nordeau Europeans are too soft and war is a necessity Author of Degeneration 1899 Idea that women were fatal attractions, luring men away from men’s work and fighting War vs Peace 1914 Civilization developed beyond war or thought war would be reinvigorating Readings Norman Angell, The Great Illusion Published in 1913 Argues war has become obsolete Passed this stage of development Impossible to take a nations wealth or trade by force Impossible to impose it’s will by force Survival of the less fit Decaus the human element Winning a war is meaningless Never ending bloodshed Friedrich Von Bernhardi: Our Future: A World of Warning to German People Suffering in the great interest of a great cause elevates man War for idealistic purposes is highest expression of the culture Political necessity for progress Biological importance of war for development of mankind Forces that bestow and create superiority in warfare are the same as those enforcing progressive development of culture Both contain elements of progress which expands people and creates favorable conditions Without war, it’s too easy for inferior to take over, decline being the outcome War is regulator Without it, unhealthy development, and general culture
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