Abnormal Psychology Week 7 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 7 Notes Psyc 2500
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Disorders of Sex and Gender -two general categories -sexual dysfunctions: failure to respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning -paraphilic disorders: repeated and intense sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations -gender dysphoria: a disorder in which people believe they were born the wrong gender Prevalence and Implications- Sexual Dysfunctions -men: 31%, women: 43% -surprisingly large percentages -can be distressing -often lead to frustration, guilt, loss of self-esteem and interpersonal problems -sexual response cycle in women is represented as much more complex -positive sexual responses can occur in women without an orgasm -in men there must be an orgasm for a positive sexual cycle to occur Sexual Response Cycle -sexual dysfunctions affect one or more of the first three phases -desire, excitement, orgasm Stage 1- Desire -interest in and urge to have sex -fantasizing, etc. Stage 2- Excitement -increases in heart/breathing rate, muscle tension, and respiration -men: erection -women: swelling of clitoris and labia, and lubrication Stage 3- Orgasm -sexual pleasure peaks -sexual tension is released as the muscles in the pelvic reagion contract rhythmically -men: ejaculation Types of Sexual Dysfunction -lifelong -has always occurred, cannot remember a time before it would occur during sexual experiences -acquired -if someone experiences a trauma, or something else they are not used to in life at that point, a sexual dysfunctional disorder may be acquired -generalized -occurs in all sexual settings -situational -in one relationship or one partner -or can be when someone masturbates but not when with a partner Disorders of Desire -male hypoactive sexual desire disorder: lack of interest in sex or little sexual activity -female sexual interest/arousal disorder: lack of normal interest in sexual activity -causes -biological -hormones -neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine in excessive quantities) -if someone has an excessive level normally, maybe sex is not as interesting due to their tolerance to the neurotransmitters -in mice they removed the serotonin entirely, which incredibly increased their interest in sex and sex drive -medications/drugs -psychological -anxiety, depression, anger -psychological disorders (OCD, etc.) -sociocultural -situational pressures -death of a loved one, job stress, divorce, etc. -cultural expectations -overwhelmed by number of sexual messages received -sexual trauma Disorders of Excitement -women: female sexual interest/arousal disorder -men: erectile disorder: persistent inability to attain or maintain an erection during sexual activity -causes (just for erectile disorder) -biological -hormones -vascular problems (physiological) -nervous system damage -spinal cord -medications -SSRIs, pain medications -substance abuse -psychological - anxiety, depression, anger -psychological disorders (OCD, etc.) -cognitive: performance anxiety and the spectator role -take yourself out of the pleasurable experience of sex, become your own worst judge -sociocultural -situational pressures -death of a loved one, job stress, divorce, etc. -cultural expectations -overwhelmed by number of sexual messages received -sexual trauma Disorders of Orgasm -premature ejaculation: men; persistent reaching or orgasm and ejaculation within 1 minute of beginning sexual activity with a partner and before he wishes to -psychological explanations -common in young, sexually inexperienced men -*inexperienced, yes; but young, not always -premature ejaculation can be an issue across age groups -anxiety, hurried masturbation experiences, or poor recognition of arousal -biological explanations -genetic predisposition -over-/under-active serotonin receptors -penile sensitivity -delayed ejaculation: men; repeated inability to ejaculate or by a very delayed ejaculation after normal sexual activity with a partner -biological explanations -hormones (ex: T) -injury or disease -spinal cord -medications -SSRIs, pain medications -psychological explanations -performance anxiety and the spectator role -female orgasmic disorder: women; persistent failure to reach orgasm, experiencing orgasms of very low intensity, or delay in orgasm -24% of women (10% or more never orgasm; 9% rarely orgasm) -factors -sexual assertiveness and comfort -sexually assertive women tend to have more orgasms, and tend to be more comfortable with exploring their own body, meaning masturbation practices, etc. -relationship status -not just sexually, but intimately overall -causes -biological -physiological conditions -medications (SSRIs, pain killers) -postmenopausal changes -not as much natural lubrication, makes sex painful, less likely to orgasm -psychological -anxiety, depression, anger -psychological disorders (OCD, etc.) -memories of childhood trauma -relationship status -sociocultural -stressful events, traumas or relationships -relationship quality (e.g. emotional intimacy) Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions -1950's and 1960's, behavioral therapy -relaxation training, systematic desensitization -1970: human sexual inadequacy (Masters & Johnson) -combination of cognitive, behavioral, couples and family systems therapies -recently, biological interventions also being used -medications -general components of modern sex therapy -assessment and conceptualization of the problem -mutual responsibility -education about sexuality -emotion identification -attitude change -elimination of performance anxiety and the spectator role -increasing sexual and general communication skills -changing destructive lifestyles and marital interactions -addressing physical and medical factors -specific components of modern sex therapy for disorders of desire -self-instruction training -behavioral techniques -insight-oriented exercises -biological interventions such as hormone treatments -medications -specific components for disorders of excitement -erectile disorder -reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing stimulation -sensate-focus exercises (e.g., 'tease technique') -exploring your partner's body, but non-genital areas -focus of the foreplay aspect -find out what they like without going straight to the genitals -medications -specific components for disorders of orgasm -premature ejaculation -"stop-start" or "pause" procedure -during masturbation, bring yourself towards ejaculation and stop before it occurs -SSRIs -delayed ejaculation -reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing stimulation -medication to increase arousal of the sympathetic nervous system -female orgasmic disorders -cognitive-behavioral therapy -consider the thoughts that lead to sex and this experience -also self-exploration and learning your own body -hormone therapy -lack of orgasm during intercourse is not necessarily a sexual dysfunction! Paraphilic Disorders -paraphilias: intense sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors that involve objects or situations outside the usual sexual norms -only diagnosed when they cause significant distress or impairment OR when the disorder places the individual or others at risk of harm (e.g. pedophilic disorder) -strongly influenced by the norms fo the particular society -Fetishistic Disorder -nonliving object, often to the exclusion of all other stimuli -common: underwear, shoes and boots -silk, leather, body piercings -behavioral approach: classical conditioning -treatment: aversion therapy, masturbatory satiation (masturbating to the point of boredom of the object), or orgasmic reorientation -if it is not working within the relationship or the person's life, because they cannot be stimulated without the specific object present, it is considered a disorder -transvestic disorder -dressing in the clothes of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal -transvestitism or cross-dressing -most commonly a heterosexual male who began cross- dressing in childhood or adolescence -operant conditioning -sometimes confused with gender dysphoria -in most cases of transvestic disorder the person is heterosexual and simply sexually aroused by cross- dressing -in gender dysphoria the person often feels as though they were born into the wrong biological sex -exhibitionistic disorder -gets sexual arousal by exposure of genitals in a public setting "flashing") -goal is to shock or surprise -treatment: aversion therapy and masturbatory satiation -orgasmic reorientation (find another way to get the stimulation other than this way which is an issue), social skills training, or cognitive- behavioral therapy -voyeuristic disorder -observing people as they undress or engage in sexual activity -masturbation -risk -psychodynamic approach: seeking power -behavioral approach: learned behavior that can be traced to a chance observation of a sexually arousing scene -pedophilic disorder -prepubescent or early pubescent children -child pornography -sexual activity with children -possible explanations: neglect, excessive punishment, lack of close relationships, immaturity, distorted thinking, additional psychological disorder(s) -most people with this disorder are imprisoned or forced into treatment -aversion therapy, masturbatory satiation, orgasmic reorientation, antiandrogen drugs (remove the sex drive) -cognitive-behavioral therapy for relapse-prevention -sexual sadism disorder -physical or psychological suffering of another individual -imagined total control over a victim -behavioral approach: classical conditioning and/or modeling -psychodynamic and cognitive approaches: underlying feelings of sexual inadequacy -biological approach: brain and hormonal abnormalities -treatment: aversion therapy -sexual masochism disorder -being humiliated, beaten, bound or otherwise made to suffer -distress or impairment needed for -behavioral approach: classical conditioning -gender dysphoria -feeling as though one has been assigned to the wrong biological sex, and that gender changes would be desirable -Genderbread person -identity is how you in your head think about yourself -the chemistry that composes you (hormonal levels) and how you interpret what that means -gender expression is how you demonstrate your gender, based on traditional gender roles, through the ways you act, dress, behave and interact -biological sex: refers to the objectively measurable organs, hormones and chromosomes -female: vagina, ovaries, XX sex chromosomes -male: penis, testes, XY sex chromosomes -intersex: combination of the two -sexual orientation: who you are physically, spiritually, and emotionally attracted to, based on their sex/gender in relation to your own -controversial inclusion to the DSM-5 because they are claiming it is a psychological disorder when it is believed by many to be anything but a disorder -associated with anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts -may or may not involve altering sexual characteristics -hormones and/or sexual reassignment surgery
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