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BIOL 1030 Topic Five Notes

by: Kassandra Balsters

BIOL 1030 Topic Five Notes BIOL 1031 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1031 - 001 > BIOL 1030 Topic Five Notes
Kassandra Balsters
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About this Document

These notes cover the material of topic five for BIOL 1030 under Dr. Bowling
Organismal Biology Laboratory
Scott Anthony Bowling
Class Notes
auburn, Biology, Bowling, Topic, five
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kassandra Balsters on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1031 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Scott Anthony Bowling in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology Laboratory in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
BIOL1030 Topic Five Notes INTRODUCTION  Most vascular plants continue growing throughout their lives o Can achieve great size and attain great age o Genetically identical individuals have propagated for generations  Vascular plants have a fundamental unity of structure o Two basic parts: root system, shoot system o Three basic organ types: roots, stems, and leaves o Three basic tissue types: dermal, ground, vascular  Vascular plants have a modular body plan (redundancy of units, general ability to replace units) ORGANIZATION  Vascular plants have a root system and a shoot system o Root system  Penetrates the soil/substrate and anchors the plant  Absorbs water and ions for plant to use o Shoot system  Stems: serve as framework and support to position leaves  Leaves: primary location for photosynthesis  Structures that serve reproductive functions (cones, flowers, fruits, seeds, etc.)  Meristem o Give rise to all other cells of plant o Composed of small, unspecialized cells that divide continually  After division, one cell remains meristematic  Other cell becomes part of plant body; may or may not go through more mitosis before differentiating  Primary growth o Initiated by apical meristems near tips of roots, shoots o Lengthening of primary plant body results o Produces “primary” tissues that are partially differentiated  Ground meristem—produces ground tissues  Protoderm—produces epidermis  Procambium—produces primary vascular tissue  Secondary growth o Appears to have evolved independently in different plant groups o Initiated by lateral meristems—internal meristematic cylinders o Expand girth of plant (thickening of plant body) o Produces “secondary” tissues; allows thick, woody trunks in some plants o Cork cambium- cork cells in bark of woody plants (outer bark) o Vascular cambium: secondary vascular tissue  Secondary phloem—closest to cork  Secondary xylem—internal; main component of wood PLANT TISSUES AND CELL TYPES  Three basic tissues: o Dermal tissue o Ground tissue o Vascular tissue  Dermal Tissue or Epidermis o Protective outermost cells, cover all parts of primary plant body o Usually only one cell thick o Cells usually flattened o Covered on outside by waxy cuticle layer that varies in thickness (depending on the species, plant region, and environmental conditions) o Most lack chloroplasts o Includes some specialized cell types for protection or absorption: guard cells, trichomes, root hairs o Guard cells- paired cells flanking a stoma  Control opening of stoma  Have chloroplasts  Stoma openings allow passage of gases, mainly CO2, O2, H2O vapor  Stomata occur on leaf epidermis, occasionally on stems and fruits  Stomata usually more numerous on underside of leaves o Trichomes- hair like epidermal outgrowths  Occur on stems, leaves and reproductive organs  Gives surface a “woolly” or “fuzzy” appearance  Keep surface cool  Reduce evaporation rate  Help protect from predators/pathogens  Physical separation  Glandular trichomes may secrete sticky or toxic substances o Root hairs- single cells found near root tips  Tubular extensions of individual epidermal cells  Intimate contact with soil/substrate  Responsible for all absorption in herbaceous plants (water, minerals, nutrients)  Ground tissue o Primarily parenchyma cells o Parenchyma cells—most abundant cells of primary tissues  Initially spherical, get compressed and flattened by neighbors  Least specialized cell type (other than meristem)  Usually capable of further division  Typically have thin walls (usually only primary wall)  Large vacuoles and usually about 14 sides at maturity  Usually remain alive after maturity; some over 100 years old  Function in storage, photosynthesis (chlorenchyma), secretion o Collenchyma  Living at maturity (usually long-lived)  Flexible, often in strands, forming support for organs (bend without breaking)  Elongated cells with unevenly thickened primarily cell walls  Example: celery “strings” o Sclerenchyma  Thick, tough secondary walls  Usually lack living protoplasts at maturity  Secondary walls often lignified (contain lignin); sometimes primary cell walls are lignified  Lignin—highly branched polymer that reinforces structure  Common in cells that have a supporting or mechanical function in body structure  Two types: fibers and sclereids  Fibers: long, slender, usually grouped in strands o Example: strands of flax, woven to make linen  Sclereids: variable in shape; often branched, single or in groups o Example: gritty “stone cells” of pears  Vascular tissue o Xylem  Principle water conducting tissue  Contains various dissolved minerals from ions  Conducts water in unbroken stream from roots to leaves  Evaporation of water at leaves (transpiration) pulls water upward  Provides structural support for plant body  Conducting elements: tracheids and vessels  Both not living at maturity  Both are elongated cells with thick, lignified secondary walls  Tracheids  Taper at ends and overlap one another  Water flows from tracheid to tracheid through pits in secondary cell walls  Vessels  Continuous hollow tubes (linked row)  Ends may be almost completely open  Almost exclusively in angiosperms  Vessels evolved from tracheids independently in several groups  Some fibers evolved from tracheids are specialized for support  Also includes fibers and parenchyma cells  Primary xylem from procambium (from apical meristem)  Secondary xylem from vascular cambium (from lateral meristem)—can form wood o Phloem  Principle food conducting tissue—carbohydrates (sucrose mainly); also amino acids, hormones  Found in outer parts of roots and stems  Girdling kills trees (remove bark in ring down to vascular cambium; prevents transport of food to or from roots)  Conducting cells: sieve cells and sieve-tube members  Both possess clusters of pores called sieve areas  Both are elongated, living cells without a nucleus  Sieve cells  More primitive (found in all vascular plant phyla)  Pores all the same size  Sieve-tube members  Only found in angiosperms  Pores may be larger, called sieve plates  Occur end-to-end, forming sieve tube  Associated with companion cells o Specialized parenchyma cells o Carry out metabolic functions to maintain sieve-tube members o Possess normal parenchyma cell components (nuclei) o Connected to sieve-tube member via plasmodesmata  Also includes fibers and parenchyma cells  Primary phloem from procambium  Secondary phloem from vascular cambium ROOTS  Lengthwise—4 regions: o Zone of maturation o Zone of elongation o Zone of cell division o Root cap  Root cap—parenchyma at tip o Protection o Golgi complexes produce mucous for lubrication o Amyloplasts (plastids with starch grains) used to perceive gravity  Zone of cell division—apical meristem, cells divide every 12-36 hours o After division, some daughter cells remain as meristem o Others soon subdivide into protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem  Zone of elongation—cells get longer o Vacuoles fuse to make large central vacuole o Flexible cell wall until final size is reached in the zone; after this, cells can grow no more  Zone of maturation—cells become specific cell types o Four regions in cross-section:  Epidermis  Cortex  Endodermis  Stele  Epidermis- epidermal cells o Thin cuticle o Develop root hairs, where absorption occurs o Root hairs usually last a few days; new ones continually made  Cortex—parenchyma below epidermis o May function in food storage o Inner boundary becomes single-layered cylinder (endodermis)  Endodermis o Primary walls of endodermis impregnated with suberin (fatty substance, impervious to moisture)  Forms Casparian strips  Water getting to center of root (where conducting tissues occur) must pass through interior of endodermal cells (never between them)  Stele—all tissues interior to endodermis o 4 components:  Pericycle  Primary xylem  Primary phloem  Pith  Pricycle—parenchymal layer just inside endodermis o May give rise to lateral or branch roots o May become part of vascular cambrium in dicots  Primary xylem o Forms star in core in most dicots o In monocots and some dicots, forms vascular bundles in rind, with a parenchymal pith in center or root  Primary phloem—between arms or bundles of xylem  Pith—ground tissue that fills out the rest of the state  Primary growth—just behind root cap  Secondary growth—after formation of lateral meristems (cambia)  Taproot system (one main root with branches)  Fibrous root system (many roots of similar diameter) STEMS  Axis—where leaves attach in spirals, whorls of 3+, or opposite pairs  Node—where leaf is attached  Internode—area between nodes  Axillary bud—between leaf and stem, may form new stem or flowers  Terminal bud—extend length of stem  Herbaceous stems—don’t form cork cambium; usually green, photosynthetic, and have stomata  Apical meristems at tips o Growth from apical meristem lengthens stem o Bud scales fall off, revealing leaf and bud primordial during growing seasons o Epidermis forms from protoderm o Procambial strands form cylinders of primary xylem and primary phloem o Ground meristem forms parenchyma cells o Parenchyma in center=pith  Vascular cambium divides to form secondary vascular tissues, increasing girth  Cork cambium in woody stems— o Arises from outer cortex; cork cells are boxlike, become impregnated with suberin and then die, form outer bark o Lenticels—some cells form cork cambium unsuberized, permit gas exchange  Monocot stems—herbaceous, vascular bundles dispersed  Herbaceous eudicots—vascular bundles arranged in ring  Woody eudicots o Secondary xylem=wood o Annual rings- growth confined to warm weather and/or rainy season {can give an idea of growing seasons over time (larger=better year)} o Rays- parenchymal cells that run perpendicular to xylem vessels to tracheids; function in the lateral transmission of water and dissolved materials o Heartwood- vessels become blocked and waste accumulates making wood darker in center o Sapwood- light functioning conductive wood outside to heartwood o Bark- outer bark from cork cambium, inner bark is phloem o Hardwood=dicot wood; Softwood=conifer wood LEAVES  Develops form primordial laid down by meristems  External structures o Dicot- flattened blade and slender stalk (petiole) o Monocot- no petiole; blade usually sheaths stem (ex, onion) o Veins- vascular tissue pattern  Monocot- parallel  Dicot- intricate network o Axillary bud- at base of leaf o Simple vs. compound leaves  Simple leaves- undivided (may have teeth or indentations)  Compound leaves- each blade divided into leaflets, leaflets don’t have axillary buds (compound leaf has one bud at base)  Pinnately compound- leaflets in pairs along common axis  Palmately compound- leaflets radiate from common point on petiole (example: marijuana)  Alternate versus opposite arrangement  Alternate- single leaves occur on alternating sides, usually in a spiral  Opposite- leaves occur in pairs on opposite sides of stem  Whorls and rosettes  Circle of 3+ leaves at a node on stem  Rosette is a whorl at essentially ground level  Internal structure o Epidermis- transparent, most cells with no chloroplasts  Upper and lower surfaces of leaf  Cuticle- waxy layer of variable thickness  May have glands and trichomes  Usually, stomata mainly on lower epidermis (underside of leaf) o Mesophyll- between upper and lower epidermis  Interspersed with veins (vascular bundles)  Palisade mesophyll- chlorenchyma is tightly packed rows close to the upper epidermis  Spongy mesophyll- loosely packed chlorenchyma nearer lower epidermis  Many air spaces, especially in spongy mesophyll (for gas exchange)  Monocot mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy layers  Leaf abscission- all vascular plants lose leaves o Abscission zone at base of petiole o Young leaves make hormones that inhibit specialization in abscission zone o Hormonal changes during aging allow two layers of differentiation  Protective layer- on stem side; up to several cells wide, may become impregnated with suberin  Separation layer- on leaf side; eventually weakens connection between leaf and stem o As abscission zone develops, chlorophyll in leaves breaks down; other colors may be revealed (cause of fall colors)  Carotenoids- yellows and oranges; present all the time  Anthocyanins and betacyanins—water-soluble red and blue pigments that may be present to some degree all the time, but often accumulate in leaf cell vacuoles as chlorophylls is lost o Weather/wind eventually knocks most leaves off o “evergreens” lose and replace their leaves continuously in small numbers; deciduous plants lose and replace all leaves together in response to seasons MODIFIED ROOTS  Prop and buttress roots—extra support  Pneumatophores—rise above water in aquatic trees; can function for gas exchange  Food storage roots—extra parenchyma cells  Rhizomes—horizontal; underground  Runners and stolons—horizontal; above ground (strawberries)  Tuber—carbohydrates concentrated at tip of stolons, which swell (potato)  Bulbs—swollen; underground with fleshy leaves attached (onions, lilies, tulips)  Cladophylls—flattened; photosynthetic; resemble leaves o Bracts- (floral leaves) (poinsettias, dogwoods) o Spines- cacti and others o Reproductive leaves- as in maternity plant, walking fern o Tendrils- winding “vines”, can be stems  “Carnivorous plans” o Capture animals (mainly insects) o Provide a nutrient supplement o Common in swampy areas with sandy soil and high amounts of sunlight, where nitrogen and/or phosphorous may be limiting  Example: southeastern US


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