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Lecture 1 and 2

by: Cora Man

Lecture 1 and 2 ATM 102

Cora Man
Stony Brook U
GPA 3.92
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ATM 102 - Lecture 1 & 2
Introduction to Weather and Climate
Professor Mak
Class Notes




Popular in Introduction to Weather and Climate

Popular in Physical Science

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cora Man on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ATM 102 at Stony Brook University taught by Professor Mak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Weather and Climate in Physical Science at Stony Brook University.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Lecture 1 – Tuesday, August 28, 2012  Synotic meteorology Observations based on variables based on  today (weather maps/ systems) Hurricane (June 1 – Nov. 30)  Northern Hemisphere – rotate counter  clockwise Southern Hemisphere – rotate clockwise Eye – lowest pressure  Cone of probably path – direction    - Wind speed categories hurricanes  - Florida: warm air rises, water on both sides of peninsula crashes in the middle - More defined/tighter eye = stronger hurricane (10­100 miles) - Rule of Thumb: Tomorrow’s weather will be like todays.  - 10% narrow window of perfect weather  - High pressure – cool/clear skies; dry/sunny - Millibar  - 1000 millibar = 1 bar = 1 atmosphere - (1013.25 mb = 1 atmosphere) standard at sea level  - 1018 – 1020 = high pressure = drought (small thunderstorms maybe) - <1000 = low pressure = hurricane  - Isobar = constant pressure = 4mb - Isotherms = lines of constant temperature = 10F (warm/cold fronts)  o Different temperature gradients = different air masses  o Different energies = weather  - Weather – state of atmosphere at a given time/place (temperature/moisture/wind  velocity/barometric pressure0 - Climate – meteorological conditions: temperature/precipitation/wind I certain  region (repeated weather patter over 10 years) - Climate is the environmental condition that occurs as a result of weather  characteristics integrated over time  - Shorter time frame = greater variability = greater uncertainty - What determines weather = solar energy - Weather = atmosphere Lecture 2 – Thursday, August 30, 2012 No clouds in air – heat goes to atmosphere  Clear days – warm in day, cool at night  Direction motion of front = direction triangles are facing  Warm front = warm air behind it – make it go in the opposite direction = cold front  Alternating between red/blue triangles = stalled front  Purple triangle = cold front runs into warm front => Included front – air is pushed up =  Precip  Cold fronts move faster Squall lines = orange  Tops of clouds are cooler than ocean/land  (higher up in atmosphere)  Stronger/taller clouds = colder  Storm surge = high tide  Hurricanes usually move to the right once it hits the middle attitudes  Atmospheric Structure  (what’s in the air, how much air there is, how warm it is) - Solar wind = charged protons cycle/page1.php Biggest reservoir = ocean  Co2 => carbonate (builds up – ocean holds a lot) Much more productive in southern hemisphere – less oscillation of carbon dioxide levels  Vertical structure of atmosphere – mixed gases (takes a week to go to top of  troposphere/month to go around world) - Huge temperature and pressure change with altitude - Mount Everest – cold on the top even though it’s located in subtropics  o Less air and raised air is expanded; takes work to make air expand; and is  losing energy; pressure decreases and gets cooler  o Compress gas; takes energy; work that’s provided is going to go into air =  warm  - 8 degrees C/km = 15 degrees F (temperature cooling rate)  - 20degrees – 70degrees = ­50 degrees  - Adiabatic expansion = higher places are colder  o System is isolated o Not provided external input o Nothing is leaking out  Above troposphere = tropopose (delineation between troposphere and stratosphere) - Winter – tropopod height = lower  - Summer – tropopod height = higher  - Tropopod = highest = low altitudes - Equator = barely any change in height of tropopod  - Troposphere gets colder as it gets higher - Stratosphere gets warmer as it gets higher = ozone (absorbs ultra violet radiation)  o O2 +hu (light) ­> o2 +o (EXOTHERMIC: RELEASES HEAT – ozone in  stratosphere)  o Chemical reaction that results in warming of air  o Ozone (o3) +photons => oxygen (o2) +o = exothermic (releases heat)  - Mesosphere gets colder as it gets higher Pressure v. altitude  - 90% of mass of atmosphere is in bottom 12km (troposphere) and 99.9% is in the  troposphere/stratosphere  2 - 1013.25 mb = 1 atmosphere = 14.7 pounds/in - Atmospheric pressure – 15 pounds per square inch  -  SOLAR RADIATION - Transfer of heat energy o Radiation (transferring energy without transferring material) – energy that an neither be created nor destroyed   Characterized by wave length and frequency (INVERSELY  RELATED)   Shorter the wave length, the stronger the particle (shorter wave  length can hold more info)  E = hc/lambda (wavelength) = nu   1/u = c  Nu = wavelength increases  Energy (of photon) decreases   As frequency increases, energy increases   Sun’s temperature = 6000k  Emission wavelength = visible region   Radiation from sun travels at the speed of light and upon reaching  Earth – warms us up  Sun is ~93 million miles away (6000k)  ~350 W/m  at TOA energy hits the Earth  Some energy is reflected, some absorbed  Degree of reflectivity = ALBEDO o Albedo of 1 = everything is reflected back (perfect  reflector) = opposite of a black body = not  absorbing anything = reflecting everything  o WHITE = reflecting all incoming radiation (snow,  clouds) o Oceans, dirt, soil = low albedo   Earth has an average albedo of about 0.3 (30% of incoming radiation is reflected back to space)  o TOA (top of the atmosphere): 1370 watts/m   2 o Sun is directly above you – SZA (solar zenith  angle) =0 degrees (more intense)   There’s a difference of energy if you’re at  the equator and if you’re at the top of the  atmosphere because there are ozone gases that absorb and reflect/scatter radiation.   (Incoming radiation)   The amount of absorption in the physical  region is very little.   Average solar input (over 24 hours and  throughout the year and at all  latitudes/locations) = 350  Earth’s average temperature = 15C  Based on an albedo of 0.3 average temperature of Earth’s  surface/lower troposphere should be about 255k or ­18C 2  Total energy of the sun = fs/4pir(sun)  255degrees Kelvin=18degrees Celsius  273degrees Kelvin = 0degrees Celsius  0degrees Kelvin = absolute zero (deep outer space)   Why are we 33 degrees C warmer at the surface than we  should be?  o Greenhouse gases (mostly water)   H 2  (60­70%) (Including clouds) is the  most important greenhouse gas in the  atmosphere, followed by CO (25%) and  2  CH 4 0%)  Water vapor: The more infrared  radiation you absorb, the more infrared  radiation you will emit.   Humans have no control of how much  water vapor there is in the atmosphere.  o Atmosphere is trapping heat, greenhouse effect  (water vapor absorbs the radiation)  o Water molecule reemits heat in infrared radiation in  all directions   How much is one degree C?  o o Conduction (direct contact)   Steel, gold  o Convection (only for liquids; physical mixing) - Earth is mostly solar powered  - Fossil fuels = stored solar energy  - Result of interception of incoming radiation and its remission as heat, Earth is  warmer than space  - - Energy released is related to temperature of body releasing - Higher the temperature of the body, the higher the energy level of the  emitted radiation EaT - Wavelength and temperature are inversely proportional  - Lambda I/T or lambda=C/T, C is a constant (Wien’s Law) 


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