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BSC 385 Chapter 2-3

by: Jackie Renfroe

BSC 385 Chapter 2-3 BSC 385

Jackie Renfroe

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First two weeks of notes
Ecology and Evolution
Dr. Benstead, Dr. Laura Reed
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jackie Renfroe on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 385 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Benstead, Dr. Laura Reed in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
8/21/15   Awesome  Biology  of  the  Day   Adaptation and Evolution Chapter  2   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,   Applica▯on,  Integra▯on     Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Announcements   •  Dr.  Reed:,  office  SEC  2330,  phone   348-­‐1345   •  Dr.  Benstead:,  office  2099A   Bevill,  phone  348-­‐9034   •  Office  hours:      Reed:  9-­‐10am,  Wednesday  (or  by   appointment)    Benstead:  11am  -­‐12  pm,  Monday   (or  by  appointment)   •  "Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on"  by   Krohne  is  required   •  The  Molles  textbook  is  op▯onal.   Announcements  cont.   Extra  Credit  Opportuni▯es   •  Slides  from  lectures  will  be  provided  AFTER   •  Extra  credit  will  be  given  to  the  first  person  to   find  any  given  error  in  the  textbook  AND  email  an   the  lecture  on  Blackboard  Learn.   •  If  you  choose  to  use  a  laptop  or  tablet  for   explana▯on  of  why  it  is  wrong  to  Drs.  Benstead   AND  Reed.    Gramma▯cal  and  typographical  errors   note-­‐taking  during  lecture  sit  at  the  BACK  of   do  not  qualify  as  scien▯fic  errors.         the  classroom.       •  2  errors  reported  already   •  Hand  wri▯en  notes  are  strongly   – pg.  1  (horseshoe  crabs  evolved  450  MILLION  years   recommended.   ago)   2 2 – bo▯om  of  pg  19,  equa▯on  p  +  2pq  +  q  =  1  is  missing   plus  signs   EDavid  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©         2015  Oxford  University  Press   1   8/21/15   Extra  Credit  Opportuni▯es   Clicker  Points  Per  Chapter   •  Extra  credit  will  also  be  offered  for  a▯ending   •  Each  chapter  has  2  lectures   the  ALLELE  lectures  in  the  evenings  on  9/28,   •  40%  par▯cipa▯on  (20%  from  each  lecture)   10/15,  11/12,  and  12/3.   •  60%  correct  answers  in  second  lecture   Current  Research   environment  interac▯ons  ype  by   leading  to  metabolic  syndrome.   h▯p://   Wyeomyia  smithii   Trained  Ally   Clickers  on  Channel  41   Anonymous  Poll   Topics  like  evolu▯on  and  climate  change  make   me  uncomfortable  because  they  conflict  with  my   religious  and/or  poli▯cal  views.     A.  True   B.  False   2   8/21/15   Evolu▯on  is  as  much  a  fact  as  the  fact   Fossils  reveal  many  problems  that   that  planets  go  around  the  Sun.     evolu▯on  cannot  explain.     A.  True   A.  True   B.  False   B.  False   Ecology  and  evolu▯on  have  li▯le   Evolu▯on  is  a  totally  random  process,   bearing  on  human  disease.   a  series  of  “accidents.”   A.  True   A.  True   B.  False   B.  False   Climate  change  and  the  greenhouse   Popula▯ons  exist  in  states  of  either   effect  are  the  same  thing.   constant  growth  or  decline.   A.  True   A.  True   B.  False   B.  False   3   8/21/15   Evolu▯on  involves  individuals   changing  in  order  to  adapt  to  their   Which  group  contains  more  species?   environment.   A.  True   A.  Plants   B.  False   B.  Animals   According  to  evolu▯on,  people  “came   Energy  accumulates  at  the  top  of  food   from  monkeys”  a  long  ▯me  ago.   chains.   A.  True   A.  True   B.  False   B.  False   Most  major  religions  in  the  US  have   officially  declared  that  they  have  NO   The  Earth  is  currently  experiencing  a   warming  trend.     conflict  with  evolu▯on.   A.  True   A.  True   B.  False   B.  False   4   8/21/15   Climate  is  simply  long-­‐term  weather   We  are  presently  in  the  midst  of  a   and  therefore  can’t  be  predicted.     mass  ex▯nc▯on   A.  True   A.  True   B.  False   B.  False   Nature Genetics 36, 1246 - 1247 (2004) h▯p://farm1.sta▯   In  a  previous  semester  I  have  taken   Natural  var   and  passed:   h▯p://   A.  Gene▯cs  (BSC  315)   B.  Cell  Biology  (BSC  300)   C.  Both   D.  Neither   h▯p://   h▯p://   h▯p://www.biology-­‐   evolu▯   h▯p://   h▯p://www.gene▯   HMS  “Beagle”   Darwin  and  the  Theory  of   27  December  1831–  2  October  1836   Evolu▯on  by  Natural   Concepts   Selec▯on   •  2.1  How  Did  Darwin  Develop  the  Theory  of   •  Observa▯ons:   Evolu▯on  by  Natural  Selec▯on?     –  Variability  of  life  forms   •  Conclusions:   –  Similari▯es  sugges▯ng   –  Concept  of  evolu▯on  by   relatedness   natural  selec▯on   •  2.2    What  Is  Evolu▯on?     •  Logical  Arguments:   •  Mechanism:   –  Heritable  varia▯on  within   –  Individuals  with  inherited   •  2.3  What  Are  the  Mechanisms  of  Evolu▯on?     species   traits  that  increase  their   –  Prodigious  reproduc▯ve   fitness  will  increase  in   poten▯al  of  organisms   frequency  in  the  popula▯on   •  2.4  How  Do  Adapta▯ons  Arise?       rela▯ve  to  other  compe▯ng   –  Intense  compe▯▯on   individuals       Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   5   8/21/15   Darwin  and  the  Theory  of  Evolu▯on  by   Darwin’s  New  Ideas   Natural  Selec▯on   •  Descent  with   •  Darwin’s  theory   provided  the   Modifica▯on   – change  through  ▯me   mechanism  for   evolu▯on   •  Common  Ancestry   •  Drawbacks:     –  Mechanisms  of  inheritance   were  not  understood   –  The  concept  of  gene  was  yet   to  be  developed   Blended  inheritance?   –  flaw  of  blended  inheritance   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Linking  genotype  and  phenotype   The  Making  of  the  Fi▯est:  Natural  Selec▯on  and   Adapta▯on   •  Genotype:  the  gene▯c  make-­‐up  of  an   individual   •  Phenotype:  an  observable  measurable   characteris▯c  of  an  organism     •  Selec▯on:  acts  on  phenotype,  but  there  will   only  be  an  evolu▯onary  response  if  there  is  a   gene▯c  basis  to  the  varia▯on  in  phenotype   6   8/24/15   Awesome  Biology  of  the  Day   Announcements   wasp?  emale   •  "Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on"   by  Krohne  is  required   – Addi▯onal  copies  will    arrive  at  bookstore   Wednesday   •  The  Molles  textbook  is  op▯onal.   Fly  Orchid,  Ophrys  insec▯fera  !  gogorytes  wasp   Pouyannian  mimicry   The  Making  of  the  Fi▯est:  Natural  Selec▯on  and   Adapta▯on   Linking  genotype  and  phenotype   What  Is  Evolu▯on?   •  Genotype:  the  gene▯c  make-­‐up  of  an   individual   •  Phenotype:  an  observable  measurable   Genotype   + Environment   characteris▯c  of  an  organism     Development   •  Selec▯on:  acts  on  phenotype,  but  there  will   only  be  an  evolu▯onary  response  if  there  is  a   gene▯c  basis  to  the  varia▯on  in  phenotype   Phenotype   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   1   8/24/15   What  Is  Evolu▯on?   Selec▯on  Drives  a  Change  in  Allele  Frequencies   •  Change  in  genotype  frequencies  over   ▯me   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                              Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Allele  Frequencies  Change  Over  Time   Hardy-­‐Weinberg  (H-­‐W)  Equilibrium     2 2 p  +  2pq  +  q  =1     where  p  and  q  –  allele  frequencies   p  +  q  =1   H-­‐W  equilibrium  can  be  extended  to  any  number  of   alleles.     A  popula▯on  in  H-­‐W  equilibrium  is  not  evolving.   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                             Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   The  Mechanisms  of  Evolu▯on   Assump▯on  of  H-­‐W   Mechanism  of  evolu▯on  if   equilibrium assump▯on  is  violated No  differen▯al  success  of   Natural  selec▯on genotypes Popula▯on  is  infinitely  large Gene▯c  dri▯ No  net  immigra▯on  or   Gene  flow emigra▯on  by  genotypes No  new  muta▯ons Muta▯on  pressure   Random  Ma▯ng   Non-­‐random  associa▯on  of   alleles   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   2   8/24/15   Clicker  Ques▯on   There  are  two  alleles  (B  &  b)  in  a  popula▯on,     f(B)  =  0.3  =  p       What  is  the  f(b)  or  q  in  this  popula▯on?   A    0.7   B.  0.09   C.  0.49   D.  1     Clicker  Ques▯on   Clicker  Ques▯on   There  are  two  alleles  (D  &  d)  in  a  popula▯on,     There  are  two  alleles  (A  &  a)  in  a  popula▯on.   f(D)  =  0.9  =  p,  f(d)  =  0.1  =  q           If  f(AA)  is  0.7,  f(Aa)  is  0.2,  f(aa)  is  0.1,  what  is  the   What  is  the  f(Dd)  or  the  frequency  of  heterozygotes  in   frequency  of  a?       this  popula▯on?   A    0.09   A    0.1   B.  0.18   B.  0.3   C.  0.81   C.  0.2   D.  0.01   D.  1     3   8/24/15   Is  this  popula▯on  in  Hardy-­‐Weinberg   Clicker  Ques▯on   Equilibrium?   Alleles   A   a   total   There  are  two  alleles  (A  &  a)  in  a  popula▯on.   Genotypes   AA   Aa   aa   total       counts   900   90   10   1000   counts   1890   110   2000   If  f(AA)  is  0.7,  f(Aa)  is  0.2,  f(aa)  is  0.1,  is  this   frequency   0.9   0.09   0.01   1   frequency 0.945   0.055   1   popula▯on  in  Hardy-­‐Weinberg  equilibrium?     p   q   f(A)=0.9+(0.09/2)=0.9+0.045=0.945 A    yes   B.  no   f(a)=0.01+(0.09/2)=0.01+0.045=0.055 But   2 2 popula▯on  is  NOT  in  Hardy  Weinberg  Equilibrium   p = 0.945 = 0.893 2 2 2pq = 2*0.945*0.055= 0.104 q = 0.055 = 0.003 Assump▯ons  of  Hardy-­‐Weinberg  Equilibrium   Darwinian  Fitness  (W)   •  the  popula▯on  is  infinitely  large  (i.e.,  no  sampling  bias,   no  effect  from  chance  events  =  no  gene▯c  dri▯)   •  The  ability  of  an  individual  genotype  or  phenotype  to  both   survive  and  reproduce   •  the  popula▯on  is  isolated  (i.e.,  no  alleles  coming  in     from  the  outside  =  no  migra▯on)   •  W = the  average  contribu▯on  of  an  average  individual  of  a   certain  genotype  to  the  gene  pool  of  the  next  genera▯on   •  ma▯ng  in  the  popula▯on  is  random  (i.e.,  everyone  has   an  equal  probability  of  ma▯ng  with  everyone  else  =  no   inbreeding)   •  W is  environment-­‐specific     •  no  new  alleles  are  spontaneously  arising  in  the   popula▯on  (i.e.,  no  muta▯on)   •  W is  rela▯ve  to  other  genotypes  or  phenotypes  in  the  same   popula▯on   •  all  alleles  have  an  equal  probability  of  surviving  (i.e.,  no   0<W<1   selec▯on)   •  Viola▯ons  of  these  assump▯ons  =  evolu▯on   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Summary of the mechanisms of evolution   Circumstances  when  popula▯ons  are   not  in  equilibrium:   •  our  assump▯ons  are  always  violated  to  some   extent   •  use  Hardy-­‐Weinberg  as  a  null  model   •  inves▯gate  the  effects  of  viola▯ng  the   assump▯ons  on  allelic  frequencies   4   8/24/15   Selection can cause allele frequencies to change across generations   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                         Dav2015  Oxford  University  Press                               Copyright  ©   Persistent selection can produce substantial changes in allele frequencies over time Selec▯on:  Defini▯ons     •  Selec▯on  occurs  when  a  par▯cular  genotype   does  not  survive  or  reproduce  in  the  same   propor▯on  as  others.     •  Quan▯fied  the  selec▯on  coefficient  (s)—the   propor▯on  of  a  par▯cular  genotype  that  is  not   represented  in  the  next  genera▯on   –   A  selec▯on  coefficient  of  1.0  means  that  the  allele   is  lethal     Each curve shows the change in allele frequency over time under a particular  ction intensity. Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Types  of  Selec▯on     Types  of  Selec▯on     •  Direc▯onal  selec▯on  favors  a  trait  shi▯ed   •  Stabilizing  selec▯on—individuals  in  both  tails   towards  one  of  the  tails  of  the  normal   of  the  curve  are  at  a  selec▯ve  disadvantage.     distribu▯on.     – Maintains  the  mean  trait  value  and  reduces  the   – Leads  to  a  shi▯  in  the  mean  trait  value.   varia▯on  in  the  trait.   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   5   8/24/15   overdominance:  selec▯on  against  homozygotes;   Types  of  Selec▯on     heterozygote  advantage   •  leads  to  stable  equilibrium   •  sickle-­‐cell  anemia  caused  by  a  single  muta▯on  in  hemoglobin   •  Disrup▯ve  selec▯on  occurs  when  the  tails  of   –  homozygous,  generally  lethal   –  heterozygotes  (carriers)  have  reduced  fitness   the  distribu▯on  are  favored  over  the   intermediate  phenotypes.   •  lethal  ca  (and  elsewhere),  Plasmodium  causes  malaria;  o▯en   – Produces  bimodal  distribu▯on  of  the  trait.   –  heterozygotes  have  some  resistance   –  heterozygotes  the  most  fit  phenotype   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Clicker  Ques▯on   Frequency-­‐Dependent  Selec▯on   What  Type  of  Selec▯on  Is  This?   •  The  fitness  of  a   genotype  varies  with  its   frequency  in  the   popula▯on   •  Maintains  varia▯on  by   favoring  rare  genes     A. Direc▯onal   B. Stabilizing   C.  Disrup▯ve   D. Frequency   Dependent   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                 Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   The  Evolu▯on  of  Resistance  in   How  Do  Adapta▯ons  Arise?   Pathogens  and  Pests   •  Selec▯on  increases  Darwinian  fitness  (W)   •  Broad  applica▯on  of   Number  of  DDT  resistant  species   an▯bio▯cs,  pes▯cides,   Genotypes   Popula▯on   and  drugs  drives  rapid   evolu▯on  in  pests  and   AA   Aa   aa   size   pathogens   DDT  introduced   Frequency   p 2   2pq   q 2   1   •  Number  of  resistant   before  selec▯on   species  rapidly   Fitness   1   1   1-­‐s   increases  over  ▯me   Frequency  a▯er   p 2   2pq   q  x  (1-­‐s) 1-­‐sq   selec▯on   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                 Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   6   8/24/15   •  Muta▯on  is  the  ul▯mate  source  of  all   Evolu▯onary  Change:  Defini▯ons   new  gene▯c  varia▯on   •  Gene▯c  dri▯—random  changes  in  allele   •  Hardy-­‐Weinberg  analysis  shows  that   frequencies   muta▯on  alone  is  a  weak  mechanism  of   •  Gene  flow—the  net  gain  or  loss  of  certain   evolu▯on   alleles  by  movement  of  individuals     •  However,  if  muta▯on  is  combined  with   •  Muta▯on  pressure—the  evolu▯onary  change   the  force  of  selec▯on  then  evolu▯on  can   resul▯ng  from  new  mutants   be  quite  rapid   •  muta▯on-­‐selec▯on  balance     – explains  rare  gene▯c  disease   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   Non-­‐Darwinian  Evolu▯on:  Gene▯c  Dri▯   •  stronger  in   small   popula▯ons   •  Alleles  can   become  fixed   (p=1)  or  lost   (p=0)  over  ▯me   •  Fixa▯on  or  loss   is  inevitable  but   unpredictable   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   7   8/26/15   Awesome  Biology  of  the  Day   Announcements   The  “walking  leaf”  insect   •  Dr.  Reed:,  office  SEC  2330,  phone  348-­‐1345   Phyllium  ericorial  is  found  only   in  the  Philippines.    Larvae   •  Dr.  Benstead:,  office  2099A  Bevill,   hatched  from  the  same  mother   phone  348-­‐9034   can  develop  different  colors.   •  Office  hours:      Reed:  9-­‐10am,  Wednesday  (or  by   appointment)    Benstead:  11am  -­‐12  pm,  Monday  (or  by   appointment)   •  If  you  choose  to  use  a  laptop  or  tablet  for  note-­‐taking   during  lecture  sit  at  the  BACK  of  the  classroom.     •  "Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on"  by  Krohne  is   required   –  Addi▯onal  copies  should  arrive  at  bookstore  today   •  Tegrity  not  working,  do  not  worry  about  the  Inner  Fish   videos  for  now   Simulations of genetic drift in populations of different sizes Non-­‐Darwinian  Evolu▯on:  Gene▯c  Dri▯     •  stronger  in   small   popula▯ons   •  Alleles  can   become  fixed   (p=1)  or  lost   (p=0)  over  ▯me   •  Fixa▯on  or  loss   is  inevitable  but   unpredictable   Ecology:  Evolu▯on,  Applica▯on,  Integra▯on                                        David  T.  Krohne                                        Copyright  ©  2015  Oxford  University  Press   The range of possible Dri▯   outcomes in our model creating 10 zygotes population of ten mice by drawing alleles   from a gene pool in which alleles A an1 A 2ave frequencies of 0.6 and 0.4. The single most probable outcome is that the allele frequencies will remain unchanged. However, the chance of this happening is only about 18%.


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