Stony Brook U
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cora Man on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ATM 102 at Stony Brook University taught by Professor Mak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Weather and Climate in Physical Science at Stony Brook University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Lecture 10 – Tuesday, October 2 , 2012 Exam topics: - radiation input - atmospheric composition and structure - stratospheric ozone – (know what it does/know what it is) - greenhouse gasses/effect (importance) – (why, what makes it a greenhouse gas?) - radiative forcing – - wavelength – does wavelength goup - frequency – (inversely proportional) - energy – - isobaric charts – - forces – - winds – - relationships in equations – - Air immediately adjacent to the surface is warmed ip or cooled largely via conduction. Because conduction is inefficient through both air and land, a large temperature gradient exists. - If this cooling happens at night, then the air immediately in contact with the ground with cool via conduction (but the ground cools via radiation) resulting in lower near surface temperatures than above. This is called an inversion. - Summary: o Air immediately adjacent to the surface is warmed up or cooled largely via conduction. Because conduction is inefficient through both air and land, a large temperature gradient exists. o Max solar input is around noon, however max daily temperature is usually in the early afternoon (assuming no change in weather, etc.) why? Ground heats up Rate of heating > rate of cooling Max daily temperature on land = 2:30 pm, 3:00 Coldest part of day = just before sunrise (entire night, you lose heat until the sun comes up) o Cooling occurs when outgoing energy exceeds incoming energy, which usually occurs in the late afternoon and continues til sunrise. Thus minimum temps are usually observed around sunrise. - Diurnal temperature variations are there greatest at/near surface. o Variations decrease with increasing height. o Higher up you go, the temperature variation will get slower. - Diurnal variations also depend on amount of heat stores by surface that is cooling radiatively. The more stored heat, the smaller the temperature variation. - Heat capacity, land v. water - One must also consider the depth of surface that is cooling/warming o Water has a high heat capacity o Heat capacity – amount of heat required to warm something uo Bigger heat capacity, harder to heat the item 1 calorie of energy to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree celcius = BIG sand has 1/5 of water’s heat capacity land is closer to sand than water oceans have a high heat capacity mixed layer depth heat liquid land has a low heat capacity land cannot hold that much heat because it is an insulator What is the hottest location in the continental US? Death valley, California o Desert o Sunny – wind is coming west to east Orographic lifting forced lifting of air due to mountainous terrain (orography) Dries out air As air rises, the air cools because it expands, (but it continually warms because you are going over land and land is continually warmed) and water out of air dries up and parcel of air goes over mountains and descends, it compresses and warms up Start at above sea level and end below sea level o Low altitude o Erratic compression o Below sea level o Air sinks, air compresses, air warms up What is the coldest location in the continental US? o North Dakota Surround by dirt Closer north Does not get much solar input Where is the hottest place in the world? o Dallol, Ethiopia (avg. annual temp = 94F) Where is the coldest place in the world? o Antarctica o Why here? Why not the North Pole? Land Higher elevation Atmospheric circulation isolates air above it for several months (no mixing)
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