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COSD 10303 Week 4 notes

by: Maycie Tidwell

COSD 10303 Week 4 notes COSD 10303

Maycie Tidwell
GPA 3.8
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These notes cover what we learned in week 4 of the class.
Survey of Communication Disorders
Class Notes
COSD, Survey, communication, disorders




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COSD 10303 at Texas Christian University taught by Watson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Survey of Communication Disorders in Nursing and Health Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Anatomy and Physiology of Speech, Hearing, and Language Respiratory System • Primary biological function • Supply oxygen to blood and remove excess carbon dioxide • Respiratory System • Pulmonary Apparatus/System • Chest Wall/Thorax • Abdominal Wall • Abdominal Content • Diaphragm Pulmonary System • Upper Airway • Mouth • Nose • Upper throat • Lower Airway • Trachea (20 rings) • Bronchi (Mainstem, Secondary) • Other pulmonary airways • Alveoli Chest / Thorax • Rib cage wall (thoracic cage) • 12 ribs • Bone and cartilage • From thoracic vertebrae to sternum and pectoral girdle (includes clavicle and scapulae) Abdominal Wall • Lower 15 of the 32 vertebrae (lumbar, sacral, coccygeal) • Pelvic girdle • Hip bones (ilium) • Lower vertebrae (sacral and coccygeal) (Everything underneath the diaphragm) Respiratory Muscles • Inspiratory Muscles • Generally above diaphragm • Diaphragm • Numerous thoracic and neck muscles • External intercostals, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, levatores costarum, sternocleidomastoid • Muscles of Expiration • Generally below diaphragm • Internal intercostals • Muscles of the abdomen • External oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis Inspiratory= helps you get air IN (inside the diaphragm) Expiration=helps you get air OUT Internal intercostal= Muscles that are internal in the rib cage External=on top of those Quiet Breathing / Tidal Breathing • Inhalation = Exhalation • About .5 L of air inhaled (e.g., size of 1 small water bottle) • Rate of inhalation/exhalation • Adult: 17-22/minute • Infant: 30-80/minute • Muscles of inhalation expand thorax (down/forward) • Passive recoil forces and gravity control exhalation *Amount of time spent inhaling is the same amount of time exhaling. 17 times per minute=adults -babies have fewer alveoli in their lungs, so they breathe faster. You don’t use your exhalation muscles in quiet breathing, yo just relax your inhalation muscles. Physiology of Tidal Breathing • Breathing to sustain life • Inspiration: Diaphragm contracts, rib cage and lungs expand, lung volume increases and air pressure drops, causing air to rush in • Expiration: Rib cage wall size decreases, lungs are compressed, pressure within lungs increases, causing air to rush out Respiratory Cycles • Lungs expand • Pressure in lungs < outside • Air moves into lung • Pressure in lungs = outside • Muscles contract to reduce chest volume • Pressure in lungs > outside Physiology of Speech Breathing • Inspiration: Rapid, greater amount of air • As much as 2 L (4 times as much as resting tidal breathing) • Expiration: Much longer than inspiration • Inspiratory and expiratory muscles are both activated during speech • When you’re speaking, you breathe in 4 times more air than tidal breathing. • Expiration=much longer so that you can talk with it. Respiratory System: Breathing for Speech • Air sets VF to vibrate • Exhalation longer in speech • Louder, longer utterances • Inhallations occur at major linguistic boundaries • Active contraction of exhalation muscles required • Control vocal intensity • Subglottal air pressure VF=Vocal folds Longer and louder the utterance= the longer the exhalation Subglottal air pressure=the air pressure built up under the vocal folds Lifespan Issues of the Respiratory System • Resting tidal breathing rate decreased from birth to adulthood • More alveoli • Maximum lung capacity reached in early adulthood • Remains constant until middle age • Respiratory function affected by exercise, health, and smoking Phonatory / Laryngeal System • Larynx • Air valve composed of cartilages, muscle and other tissue • Sound generator / Produces sound of voice • Biological functions • Prevents objects from entering the trachea and lungs • Cough • Subglottic air pressure • Larynx=voice box • Glottis= the opening between the vocal folds • 3 Biological (non speech) functions Larynx • Hyoid bone • Point of attachment for muscles of tongue and larynx • Free floating, at the top of the larynx • Cartilages • Thyroid cartilage • Thyroid notch • Thyroid prominence • Cricoid cartilage • Epiglottis • Prevents food from entering larynx • Arytenoid cartilages • Forward point: Vocal process • Backward projection: Muscular process • Vocal folds in front are attached to =thyroid cartilage • Vocal folds in the back are attached to=arytenoid cartilage • Pharynx=another term for throat Vocal Folds Ivory bands of tissue *about 17.5 - 25 mm (0.75" - 1.0") in adult male Attachments: Attached posteriorly to the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages and anteriorly to the thyroid cartilage Glottis: Opening between VFs Muscles Affect Vocal Folds • Shorten & lengthen • Tense & relax • Bring together & pull apart Vocal folds often: • Vibrate fast or slow • Open & close • Quickly or slowly • More or less force • Close • Fully or partially • Elongated (thin) or shortened (thick) • Tense or relaxed Lifespan Issues of the Laryngeal System • Newborns • Larynx small and high in the neck • 10-20 years of age • Larynx reaches final position • Laryngeal cartilages become less pliable with age • Vocal folds increase in length differentially for males and females • Become less flexible with age How Do Vocal Fold Changes with Age? • Laryngeal cartilages ossify (turns to bone) with age • VF lose muscle tissue (atrophy) • VF lose elasticity and become stiffer and less flexible • Pitch increase in men and decrease in woman (may be hormone- related) Articulatory / Resonating System • Articulation = Movement • Vocal Tract • Pharyngeal cavity • Oral cavity • Nasal Cavity Facial Skeleton and Cranium • 22 bones • Mandible • Maxilla • Temporal • Parietal • Frontal • Occipital • Zygomatic Lower Jaw: Mandible • Alveolar arch teeth • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) Soft Palate • Soft Palate: Velum • Uvula • Velopharyngeal closure • Separates nasal cavity from pharyngeal cavity • Needed for pressure sounds (e.g., b, p) Hard Palate • Maxilla: Palatine process Ø Hard palate • Maxilla: Alveolar process Ø Teeth • Maxilla: Premaxilla Ø Incisors • Palatine bone: Soft palate attachment **  it’s made up of bones from the maxilla and the palatine bone Occlusion • Class I: Normal • Class II: Upper jaw Ø out; Lower jaw Ø in • Class III: Upper jaw Ø in; Lower jaw Ø out • Carol Burnett had a class 3 occlusion. • Jay Leno also has an occlusion. Teeth • Deciduous = 20 • Permanent = 32 • Held in alveolar processes of mandible and maxilla Tongue • Biological function • Muscular hydrostat (has no bone or cartilage) • Anatomic Divisions • Tip • Blade • Dorsum • Root Tongue Muscles • Multiple and swift movements • Intrinsic muscles: Superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, vertical, transverse • Extrinsic muscles: Styloglossus, palatoglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus You don’t need to know the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Just know there’s a lot of them. Lips and Cheeks • Orbicularis oris • Buccinator Articulatory/Resonating System: Lifespan issues • Bones of the skull reach adult size by 8 years • Newborns have 45 separate skull bones that fuse into 22 at adulthood • Lower facial bones reach adult size at 18 years • So slower growth rate • Allows face to grow downward and forward • Dentition emerges around 6 months and is complete around 3 years • Bones in skull are adult size at 8 years old. • Goes from 45 to 22 bones. • You must wait until the child has fully grown into their bones before you restructure anything permanently. • Secondary dentition begins about 5 years of age complete around 18 years • Newborn’s tongue occupies most of the oral cavity • Tongue reaches adult size around 16 years • At birth, velum close to the epiglottis • So velopharynx is open during all vocalizations (sounds nasal) • Between 6 months and 3 years, achieve airtight VP closure for speech sounds • Length and volume of the oral cavity increases throughout development • Changes the overall resonant characteristics The Epiglottis is the flapping thing that keeps things from going into the larynx. That’s why a baby’s cry is so nasally and high. The Speech Production Process • Phonation begins the process • Tracheal/alveolar/subglottal pressure • Air pressure beneath adducted vocal folds • Pressure displacement • Lower edges of folds first and then upper edges • Natural elastic restoring forces • Folds back to midline • Glottis: opening between the vocal folds • Fundamental frequency - Hz • Number of cycles (i.e., opening and closing of VFs per second) • Harmonics • Approximately 40 additional higher frequencies • Vertical phase difference • The upper portion of the vocal folds is displaced after the lower portion • Contributes to self-sustained vibration • Vocal tract is an acoustic resonator • Modifies (reduces & enhances) certain frequencies • Determined by the physical aspects of the resonator • Movement of the tongue, lips, and larynx • Compare /i/ and /u/ • Hertz: fundamental frequency. (# of cycles) • Harmonics are higher. • When you hear someone talk you hear more than one tone. • Vertical Phase Difference. When you say “eeee” and “ooooo” Your lips change and your tongue changes. (which changes the sound of the vowels).


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