History 105: Week 6 Lecture Notes
History 105: Week 6 Lecture Notes HIST 105
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christian Benson on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at University of Oregon taught by Prof. Furtado in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Lecture – 2/8/16 th Neo-Confucianism (10-12 Century, Song Dynasty) o Return to hierarchy o Create a good society o Reject Buddhist indifference toward world o Material, practical questions Opposite of Taoism o Education and guidance are task of state Confucianization o 1200 Judge Dees o Society governed by educated elites o Examination system and Meritocracy o Highest rank is magistrate of county o Local authority to families and clans Protestant: o Churches under state authority o Destruction of monasteries o Iconoclasm o Civil war o Moral laws punishment for thinks like drunkenness and adultery Catholic: Council of Trent (1545-63) o Guys that agreed with Protestant views but were still Catholic Jesuits, Ignatius Loyola (1550) o Best educated catholic monks that went to convert people back to catholic from protestant Universal harmony vs. Individual souls o In Europe, state intervened in society due to religion Confessionals (individual souls) o China left society alone for the most part (universal harmony) Family in China and Europe How did the structure of Chinese and European families compare in our period, what effect did those structures have on the larger states of which they were apart of? European family o Father, mother, a few children = nuclear family (doesn’t include extended family) Familia = latin Paterfamilias = latin Patriarchy family system dominated by males Chinese family (Jia or Kin) o Blood, adoption, marriage o Patriarchy o Bigger is better (include extended family) o 5 generations under one roof symbolic number Family names o China: Ancient surnames o Europe: surnames for occupations (Miller, Sawyer) Only 100 common Chinese surnames Chinese given names (first names): sound and form o They cared about how it sounded and how it looked on paper o Filial piety and relations The lineage or clan (Zu) o Common land, farmed or rented o A bunch of families with some surname that descended from one guy o Maintain ancestral graves, tablets, halls and temples o Maintained orphanages, schools, roads, bridges, and granaries The clan and social mobility, stability o Less class conflict o Harmony Lecture – 2/10/16 Jia (family) is part of Zu (clan) The compound o Feng Shui (strategic placement) o Northern side = water side o Southern side = sun side Women and confinement o China: women were expected to stay inside the compound at all times o Europe: socially stratified lower, lower in class had to work outside but higher class stayed inside Europe and family living o The apartment o Before the elevator, rich people lived on the bottom floor o Chinese cities tended to be flatter than Europe’s, taller buildings in Europe Nuclear families moved around a lot o Especially Jews European nobility o Large enclosures o Non-nuclear residents o Servants and people like that lived with them o Royal marriages Trade relationships Habsburgs (Spain, Austria) Bourbons (Spain, France) Hanover (England, Ireland, Great Britain) Chinese nobility o Virtuous circle = wealth and education Meritocracy In Europe, nobility comes from birth, in china, comes from behavior Marriage in Europe o Nuclear family and reformation o Geographic and confessional differences State and church promotes nuclear family o Cut down on polygamy Church promotes o Marriage o Celibacy o Marital choice Community is at risk for damnation if certain members are being sinful Marriage in China o Contracted (same in Europe for nobles) o Concubinage/polygamy (10 percent) Hierarchy Primary and secondary wives Women got married around 17 or 18 years old Poor men didn’t have much chance at marriage Women mostly all got married Marriage ages were lower in China o Surname exogamy: cannot marry within surname In Europe sometimes married relatives to maintain close control of wealth Children o China: Female infanticide Widow chastity Widows monument: if husband dies, can’t remarry and stay inside compound and think about memories of husband Male adoption was common in china o Rare in Europe Inheritance problems in china o Partible inheritance All sons split inheritance Property dwindles with each generation Europe divided between primogeniture and partible inheritance Chinese women own property only via dowry (stuff her old family brought to the marriage Sentimentality and “childhood” in Europe o Kids just as capable of thinking as adults, just a little human Breastfeeding o With mom instead of a “wet nurse” Lecture – 2/12/16 Children were born a set way, only thing that changed in growing up was physical appearances (belief of Europeans) “Separate Spheres” and inequality o Nobility imagined that women could be the same as men Men and women lived in completely different spheres o Women’s sphere in house, domestic affairs o Lower on socio-economic scale the more likely it would be for women to outside Looked down upon Similar to Chinese China: foot binding o Status symbol o Widows maintain harmony by not remarrying and living life Wrap feet very tightly in linen o Deforms food o Shows very high class status o Erotic for men o Cultural symbol o The new masculinity to blame? Painting, calligraphy, and books were now masculine instead of swords and war o Foot binding in response to that? Popular religion: Chinese ancestor worship formed the foundation for their religious worldview, while Europeans worshipped paternal god, what consequences did this have? Chinese religious worldview o Flexible, no rigid dogma (no branches of religion) Polytheism vs. monotheism o Europeans believed in one god but argue about the ways to do it o No equivalent priestly class in China, more relaxed Taoist cosmology o Yin : Yang o Female : Male o Evil : Good o Death : Life o Dark : Light o Channeling of energy is chi, flows through everything Veins of minerals in earth are chi, everything is bound by chi o Earth as an organism o Cosmic order and harmony o Energy flow o Nature and energy Mt. Tai (Taishan) o Mountains were strong locations for cosmic energy Taoist Geomancy o Feng Shui o Building graves always had to be on a hill with water flowing underneath o Buildings built north to south An “auspicious day” o Calendars: determining what time someone was born, to find astrological sign o Knowing time and location of any event o Zodiac (compass) o Time and place Chinese adopted compass in the 2 nd century to determine times and places, not for navigation Ritual was critical o Faith is foundation of western religion o China is more about ritual, less believing in it o China is all about family and lineage You would stop existing in nobody took care of your grave (china) Hungry soul – body soul o Disrupt your life somehow Body soul: stays with bones when you rest, always will be there Spirit soul: can become immortal if family takes care of your grave Hungry ghost: what happens when living don’t honor their dead Domestic ancestor worship o Had paper that showed ancestors names in home o Name sheet Linage cult o Sole route to immortality o Seat in ancestral hall (endowments) o 40 generations in south china Have to be wealthy Need 7 generations to revere you after death in order to get immortality, tablet must not rot Zao Jun: god of hearth (home) Tu Di Gong: god of earth (village) Cheng Huan Ye: god of city (country) Married hierarchy and bureaucracy in heavens as earth o Yo huang – the jade emperor Need money in heavens and also fill out paperwork and all that stuff o Passports, visas o Afterlife just an extension of the present o Thus the importance of the son of heaven Guanyin o A Bodhisattva, the Goddess of mercy Patron of unmarried young women Christian cosmology o God the father, judgment, individual souls and salvation, different than China
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