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chapter 5 and 6

by: Brooke Martin

chapter 5 and 6 Biology 2107

Brooke Martin
GPA 3.9

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chapter 5 and 6
Principles of Biology
Eric Gilbert
Class Notes
Biology, GSU
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 2107 at Georgia State University taught by Eric Gilbert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Brooke Martin Biology February 11, 2016 Notes STRUCTURE OF CELL MEMBRANE (5.1) Amphipathic – hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions Ex) phospholipids Form into structures Micelle Bilayer Cell membrane = fluid Lipid able to move in the plane of the membrane Held together via van der Waals and hydrophobic interaction Cholesterol – in animal cell membrane Amphipathic – packs tightly with phospholipids ↓ Temp = ↑ membrane fluidity Protein function in membrane Transporters – move ions and molecules Channels = allow movement Carriers = facilitate movement Receptors – receives signals from environment Enzymes – catalyze reactions Anchors – maintain structure and shape Oligosaccharide – recognition and binding Adhesion – form complexes to bind to things Membrane protein Integral – permanently attached to membrane Peripheral – can be separated from membrane Transmembrane – three regions Two hydrophilic and one hydrophobic PLASMA MEMBRANE AND CELL WALL (5.2) Plasma membrane = cell membrane Homeostasis Maintained via selective barriers Hydrophobic layer prevents ions and charged/polar molecules from entering Proteins and polysaccharides too large Diffusion Passive transport ↑ Concentration to ↓ concentration Facilitated diffusion Protein barrier or channel Ex) Aquaporin – allow H2O to flow (osmosis) Active transport Requires energy Primary = ATP Secondary = electrochemical gradient INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL (5.3) Prokaryote Ex) bacteria and archaea Lack nucleus Parts of cell: Nucleoid – where DNA is concentrated Plasmids – carry genes; transferred via pili Eukaryote Ex) plant, animal, fungi Organelles ER – synthesis proteins and lipids Golgi apparatus – modify proteins and lipids Lysosomes – breakdown macromolecule Mitochondria – powerhouse Cytoskeleton – maintain shape Chloroplasts – sunlight → chemical energy Cytosol – internal environment ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM (5.4) Vesicles – small membrane enclosed sacs Transport material Make up endomembrane system Exocytosis Empty contents to extracellular space Deliver proteins Endocytosis Vesicle can bud off from outside to inside Nucleus houses gnome Endoplasmic reticulum Protein and lipid synth Lumen – interior of ER Rough ER – ribosomes bind to cytosolic surface Smooth ER – storage for lipids and steroids Golgi apparatus Lumen – where chemical modification occurs Roles 1. Modify and sort proteins and lipids 2. Sorting station 3. Carbohydrate synthesis Cisternae – flattened membrane sacs Golgi bodies Protein sorting and distribution Produce vesicles Lysosome Break down macromolecules Sort proteins Protein pumps maintain acidic pH MITOCHONDRIA & CHLOROPLAST (5.5) Mitochondria Sugars → ATP Energy Chloroplast Capture sunlight Thylakoid: Light collecting molecule METABOLISM (6.1) Carbon sources Phototrophs Energy from sunlight Chemotroph Via organic molecules Autotrophs Make their own organic source of carbon Heterotrophs Rely on other organisms Metabolism Chemical reaction that sustains life Branches Catabolism – break down Anabolism – build up ENERGY (6.2) Kinetic – motion Potential – stored Chemical – form of potential (W) = work (Fx) = force (∆x) = change in distance W = (Fx)(∆x) THERMODYNAMICS (6.3) 1 law: energy cannot be created nor destroyed 2ndlaw: entropy (disorder) will increase CHEMICAL REACTIONS (6.4) Reactants → products (G) = Gibbs free energy Energy available to do work Exergonic – release energy; -∆G Endergonic – absorb energy; +∆G (H) = enthalpy – total amount of energy (S) = entropy – disorder (T) = absolute temperature – in Kelvin G = H – TS ∆G = ∆H - T∆S Hydrolysis of ATP = energy ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi ENXYME AND RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTION (6.5) Enzyme = catalyst Reactants → products Transition state Unstable & hella free energy Substrate product Active site: part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate Enzyme Specific Influenced Inhibitors – decrease activity Activators – increase activity Type: allosteric Change in shape and activity of enzyme IN CLASS Diffusion – lipid-soluble substances and water Passive – water and water soluble substance; aka facilitated diffusion Active – specific solutes pumped via transport proteins; require energy Membrane cycling Cell size maintained via the gaining and loss of plasma membrane Nucleus Separate DNA from rest of cell Easier to manage Nuclear membrane Pore – cluster of proteins spans over bilayers Regulate flow Cytoskeleton Two parts: microtubules and micro filaments Animal cells have a third part: intermediate filaments Microtubules Formed from tubulin dimers Microfilaments Double helix of actin monomer Intermediate filaments Fiber formed from intermediate filament proteins catmbolis anabolis m Catabolism: ADP to ATP Anabolism: ATP to ADP Macromolecules Subunit Sugars Carbohydrates Proteins Amino acids Fatty acids Fats Nucleic acid Nucleotides


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