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American Politics- Week 5 of Notes

by: Makayla Prince

American Politics- Week 5 of Notes POLS 1110 - 003

Makayla Prince
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in week 5 of Political Science: American Politics
American Politics
Jason Giersch
Class Notes
american politics, political science
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Prince on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1110 - 003 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Jason Giersch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see American Politics in Political Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
American Politics   Notes­ Week 5    Struggle for Equality   ● Conceptions of Equality  ● The Constitution and Inequality     Conceptions of Equality   ● What does equality mean?  ­ Not “sameness”   ­ Not equal rewards or results   ­ Equality of opportunity   ­ Inalienable rights     Constitution and Equality   ● Fourteenth amendment   ­ Equal protection of the laws  ● Standards of Review  ­ Reasonable   ­ Inherently suspect classifications   ­ Race and ethnicity   ­ Compelling public interest   ­ No other way to accomplish purpose of law   ­ Intermediate scrutiny   ­ Gender  ­ Substantial relationship to purpose     What standard do laws that discriminate on the basis of race have to meet?  ● Compelling government purpose     African Americans’ Civil Rights   ● Era of Slavery   ● Era of reconstruction and segregation   ● Equal education   ● Civil rights movement and public policy   ● Voting rights     Era of Slavery   ● 250 years of legal slavery   ● Plantation owners had political influence   ● Scott v. Sandford (1857)   ­ Slaves had no legal rights­ chattel   ­ Invalidated Missouri Compromise   ● End of Slavery   ­ Union victory in Civil War   ­ Thirteenth amendment (1865)     Era of Reconstruction and Segregation   ● The first ten years   ­ Strict federal control of South  ­  African American men held office   ● Jim Crowe Laws   ­ Segregation  ­ Cradle to grave   ­ Ku Klux Klan   ● Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)   ­ Separate is okay as long as it is equal   ­ Private sector free to discriminate     Equal Education   ● Higher education   ­ McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950)   ­ Sweatt v. Painter (1950)   ● Elementary and Secondary Education   ­ Brown v. Board of Education (1954)   ­ Separate inherently unequal   ­ Overturned Plessy   ● De jure versus de facto  discrimination     Civil Rights Movement and Public Policy   ● Both black and White activists   ­ Non­violent civil disobedience   ­ Television key to success   ● Civil Rights Act of 1964   ­ Private sector discrimination illegal   ­ Created EEOC   ● Discrimination in housing     Voting Rights  ● Evading the fifteenth amendment   ­ Literacy tests  ­ Grandfather clause   ­ Poll taxes   ­ White primary   ● Barriers fall   ­ Twenty­fourth amendment (1964)   ­ Harper v. VA Board of Elections (1966)   ­ Voting Rights Act of 1965    Rights of Other MInority Groups   ● Native Americans   ● Hispanic Americans   ● Asian Americans   ● Arab Americans and Muslims     Native Americans   ● Oldest minority group  ● 5.2 million   ● History of poverty; discrimination   ● Reservations   ● Dawes Act of 1887   ● 1924: Citizenship     Hispanic Americans   ● Largest minority group   ● 51 Million (16% of population)   ● New Mexico, Texas, California   ● Discrimination   ● Hernandez v. Texas (1954)   ● Illegal immigrants   ­ Children can attend public schools   ­ No consensus on national policies     Asian Americans   ● Fastest­growing minority group   ­ 17 million (6% of population)   ­ Discrimination in education, jobs, housing, and in naturalization   ● Korematsu v. United States (1944)   ­ WWII internment camps constitutional   ­ Apology/payments     Arab Americans and Muslims   ● Most feared minority   ­ 3.5 million Arabs/ 6 million Muslims   ­ Bias related attacks since 9/11  ­ Discrimination   ● Illegal detentions   ­ Habeas Corpus rights     The Rights of Women  ● Battle for the vote   ● “Doldrums”: 1920­1960   ● Second Feminist wave   ● Women in the workplace   ● Wage discrimination and comparable worth   ● Women in the military     Battle for the Vote   ● Seneca Fall Declaration of Sentiments and revolutions (July 19th, 1848)   ­ Like Declaration of Independence   ­ Only one signer lived to vote   ● Nineteenth amendment (1920)   ­ Western states in vanguard     “Doldrums”: 1920­1960   ● Voting rights only first step to equality   ­ Disagreement on other goals   ­ Social feminists   ­ Paternal protectionism rather than equality   ● Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)   ­ Seen as a threat to family     Second Feminist Wave   ● Civil rights and feminism   ­ Parallels seen again   ­ Reed v. Reed (1971)   ­ Craig v. Boren (1976)   ­ National Organization for Women (NOW)    ● Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)   ­ Defeated again     Women in the Workplace   ● Traditional family model disappearing   ­ Need new public policies   ● Progress against discrimination   ­ Civil Rights Act of 1978   ­ Title IX of Education Act of 1972     Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth and Sexual Harassment   ● Wage discrimination persists   ­ 80 cents for every dollar men earn   ● Sexual harassment in the workplace   ­ Form of gender discrimination forbidden by Civil Rights   ­ Act of 1964   ­ Retaliation prohibited   ­ Prevalent in male­dominated fields   ­ Huge problem in the military     Women in the Military   ● Controversial   ­ Women serve in every branch   ­ 14% of active duty armed forces   ­ Allowed in academies since 1975   ● Gender differences in military   ­ Only men must register for draft   ­ Women forbidden from ground combat   ­ Difference between policy and practice     Other Groups Active under the Civil Rights Umbrella   ● Civil Rights and the Graying of America   ● Civil Rights and people with disabilities   ● Gay and Lesbian rights     Civil Rights and the Graying of America   ● Aging population   ­ 40 million over 65 (13% of population)   ­ 5.5 million over 85 and growing   ● Social Security   ­ 65 arbitrary age   ­ Never meant to be adequate income   ● Age discrimination   ­ Limited protection in law     Civil Rights and People with Disabilities   ● Direct and Indirect discrimination   ­ Public accommodations inaccessible   ● Legal protections   ­ Rehabilitation Act of 1973   ­ Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975   ­ Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990     Gay and Lesbian Rights   ● Toughest battle for equality   ­ Homophobia and violence   ● Gay rights movement   ­ Stonewall 1969   ­ Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)   ­ Boy Scouts   ­ Don’t ask, don’t tell   ­ Lawrence v. Texas (2003)   ­ Same­sex marriage     Affirmative Action   ● Redressing past discrimination   ● Equality of results   ● Quotas and special rules   ● Controversial   ● Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)   ● Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995)   ● State bans on affirmative action programs   ● California’s Proposition 209 (banned state affirmative action programs)     Understanding Civil Rights and Public Policy   ● Civil Rights and Democracy   ● Civil Rights and the Scope of Government     Civil Rights and Democracy   ● Equality basic principle of democracy   ­ One citizen, one vote   ­ Conflict with individual liberty   ­ Favors majority rule  ● Minorities can threaten majorities   ­ Women make up 53% of the population   ­ African American majorities in southern states during segregation   ● The power of the vote     Civil Rights and the Scope of Government   ● What about limited government?  ­ Issues founders could not envision   ­ Government not exactly limited when it discriminated        


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