Bio 103 The Skeletal System Notes
Bio 103 The Skeletal System Notes Biology 103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
The Skeletal System Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments Cartilage= Embryonic structure of most bones and covers many joint surfaces (condyles) Ligaments= Hold bone to bone at the joint. Made up of dense regular connective tissue Tendons= Attach muscles to bone. Made up of dense regular connective tissue Functions of the Skeleton o Support o Movement o Protection o Blood Formation o Electrolyte Balance o Acid-Base Balance o Detoxification Shape of the bones o Long o Short= Tarsal (ankle) Carpal (wrist) o Flat= Skull, scapula o Irregular= Vertebrae, pelvic bones o Sessmoid= Extra bones (patella, which is formed by the tendon). Grow within connective tissue and not ligaments. General features of bones o Compact (cortical bone)= Dense outer bone that covers ¾ of the skeleton o Spongy (cancellous bone)= Loosely organized. The spaces in between bone tissue are called trabeculae. It covers ¼ of the skeleton Structure of Long Bones o Diaphysis= Shaft o Epiphysis= Head. Contains red bone marrow o Medullary Cavity (marrow cavity)= Stores fat o Epiphyseal (growth plate)= Lines near joints. Bone replaces it after puberty o Periosteum= Tissue around the bone o Nutrient Foramina= Holes in the bone where blood vessels insert to bring nutrients o Endosteum= Inner tissue layer o Articular cartilage= Covers ends of bones Bone Tissue o Bone is a type of connective tissue o Osteology= The study of bones Bone Cells Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) Cells o Adult stem cells= Can’t transform into any other cell, unlike embryonic cells o Endosteum o Inner periosteum o Central canals Osteoblasts= Bone forming cells Osteocytes= Mature bone cells Osteoclasts= Bone dissolving macrophages (type of cell that’s acidic). Has different names according to the type of tissues Bone Matrix= 1/3 organic, collagen o 2/3 inorganic mainly hydroxyapatite (crystallized calcium phosphate) Compact Bone Structure Concentric Lamellae= Rings surrounding osteon 2 Central Canal= Osteogenic canal Osteon= Tubes that go to the length of the bone Perforating Canals= Connecting canal, goes into nutrient foramina. Also known as Volkmann Canals Lacunae= Space within bone where osteocyte resides Canaliculi= Arms of the osteocyte. Brings in oxygen and nutrient Trabeculae= Arches of bone. Made up of intertwining thin plates. The spaces are filled with bone marrow. Part of Spongy Bone Bone Marrow Soft Tissue o Medullary Cavity= Has fat as an adult o Spaces in trabeculae o Large central canals Red Bone Marrow= Hemopoietic tissue (forms blood) o Found mainly in axial region o Locations: Flat bones (skull, sternum, ribs), vertebrae, parts of the pelvic girdle, proximal heads of the humerus and femur Yellow Bone Marrow= Does not produce blood. Turns mainly into adipose tissue and replaces red bone marrow as a person ages o Mostly found in the appendicular region 3 Bone Development Ossification (osteogenesis)= Bone formation Intramembranous Ossification= Produce flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle o Dermal Bones= Develop in fibrous sheet Endochondral Ossification= Bone develops from hyaline cartilage. It lasts from 6 weeks of age to early 20s. Allows rapid expansion of the brain and easier birth since the skull bones aren’t fused. Appositional Growth= Adding more matrix to the surface. Gets thicker, but not heavier. o Osteoblasts build bone on the outer surface o Osteoclasts dissolve bone on the inner surface o Similar to intramembranous ossification Bone Remodeling o Absorption= Dissolving bone o Deposition= Building new bone. Exercise and steroid hormones (testosterone/estrogen) stimulate remodeling Wolff’s Law of Bone o Bone shape is determined by mechanical stress o Bone adapts to withstand stress o Form follows function 4
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