Bio 103 Joints notes
Bio 103 Joints notes Biology 103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Joints Any point where two bones meet Arthrology= Study of joint structure, function, and dysfunction Kinesiology= Study of musculoskeletal movement Four types of Joints 1. Bony Joint (Synostosis)= Two bones that are ossified together. Fusion of fibrous or cartilaginous joints o Example= Mandibular bones, some cranial structures, epyphysis with diaphysis, infant’s frontal suture fusing 2. Fibrous Joints= Collagen fibers bind with little to no movement. 3 types: o Suture= Skull bones o Gomphosis= Tooth to socket o Syndesmosis= Bound by long fibrous tissue 3.Cartilaginous Joints= Cartilage joint. 2 types o Synchondrosis (hyaline) locations= Epiphyseal plates o Symphysis (fibrocartilage) locations= Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs 4.Synovial Joints= Most common joint. Ranges from freely moveable to limited mobility. Most structurally complex Articular Cartilage= Always surrounds joints. Example: Hyaline cartilage Joint Cavity= Narrow space in between bones Joint Capsule= Encloses cavity and retains fluid o Fibrous Capsule= Made up of dense irregular connective tissue Synovial Membrane= Produces synovial fluid Ligaments= Attaches bone to bone and is made up of dense regular connective tissue Articular Disc= Fibrocartilage pad that crosses the entire capsule (sternoclavicular joint) Meniscus= Doesn’t cross the entire capsule (knee joint) Bursa(e)= Fibrous capsule filled with synovial fluid. Acts as a cushion. Found between adjacent muscles, bone, and skin. Source of Bursitis Tendon Sheaths= Tubes wrapped around tendons, especially in the hand and foot. Minimizes friction and is source of tendonitis *Cartilage is non vascular Exercise improves nutrition, oxygenation, and waste removal of chondrocytes, creating healthier tissue Movements of Synovial Joints Range of Motion (ROM)= Number of degrees through which one bone moves relative to another at that joint Factors affecting ROM o Structure of articular surfaces of bones o Strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules o Action of muscles and tendons Movement Terms for Synovial Joints o Flexion= To bend Extension= To extend o Abduction= Moving away from the body Adduction= Moving toward the body o Elevation= To raise (elevating mandible) Depression= To lower (opening mouth) o Protraction= Move something forward Retraction= Moving mandible back o Circumduction= Move in a circle (appendicular system) 2 Rotation= Right and left rotation of axial skeleton. Lateral or medial rotation of appendicular skeleton. o Supination= Palms face up o Pronation= Palms face down o Radial flexion= Wrists move away from body toward radius o Ulnar flexion= Moves toward body, toward ulna o Dorsiflexion= Foot. Bend toes up o Plantarflexion= Foot. Bend toes down o Inversion= Foot. Move medially. Sole facing medial o Eversion= Foot. Bend ankle outward, sole facing laterally Tibiofemoral (knee joint) External o Quadriceps tendon= Extends from femur. Extends leg lower o Patella o Patellar ligament o Lateral (fibular) collateral ligament o Medial (tibial) collateral ligament o Medial meniscus Knee Joint Internal o Anterior Cruciate Ligament= Prevents hyperextension o Lateral meniscus o Lateral (fibular) collateral ligament= Prevents knee rotation o Posterior Cruciate Ligament o Medial Meniscus= Distribute force on knee prevents side movements Lateral View o Anterior Cruciate ligament o Posterior= Prevents posterior displacement of tibia o Quadriceps tendon o Patella o Patellar ligament 3 4