Continuation of Cell Structure & Function
Continuation of Cell Structure & Function BIOL 3444 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by rocket0724 on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3444 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Thomas Chrzanowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Continuation of Cell Structure & Function Page 13 v Yellow/Orange box at bottom of page Ø Very charged surface to the gram negative cell § Bad cell to humans Page 14 v They can be monomeric or trimetric Ø 3 barrels or 1 barrel § Hydrophilic in the membrane of these Page 15 v CH tr2ple bond is glycerol attached with 3 fatty acids v Going to anchor the lipid to the peptidoglycan Ø Holds the outer membrane to the cell wall v From outer membrane, coil over, then up, coil over again, & straight down v Embedded in the membrane is the biochemical machine that does the building Ø The machine is attached at the points of synthesis that holds it into the membrane v Gram Positive Wall Structure Ø Two types of polymers § Glycerol phosphate • 1-3 with carbon at the ends ♦ Carbon atom 2 will bind to the peptidoglycan Ø Essentially this helps stabilize the structure § Ribotal phosphate • 1-5 with phosphate in between Ø Lipoteichoic goes all the way from the cell membrane & outside of the wall v Page 16 v What happens to the volume of the cell as the ratio increases? Ø It becomes larger (amount of space for builders) v What happens to the surface area of the cell as the ratio increases? 1 Ø It becomes small (surface area to supply raw materials) v Where are the transport proteins? Ø All embedded in the membrane v If the cell is big as the blue sphere, the cell has a little area of builders & large area of the ability to supply raw materials v If the cell is as big as the green sphere, the cell has a larger area of builders & small area of the ability to supply raw materials v Moving by gas vesicles is not very common at all Page 17 v Flagella Ø Monotrichous flagellated § Flagella on one end Ø Lophotrichous § Multiple flagella on the front & end Ø Amphitrichous § Flagella on both ends Ø Peritrichous § Flagella coming out from all over the cell Ø How does this work? § Rigid helical structure that spins • It drives the cell forward • The cell turns them on or off • Cells only move in straight lines & there are not steering mechanisms ♦ If you see the cell change direction, it hit something & bounced off that particle structure Ø In the gram negative, the periplasm is aqueous § Transport proteins pick up stuff in aqueous space & transport things around the cell Ø Will flop around until it overcomes inertia § The cell & the flagella are turning in opposite directions • Once it stabilizes, it moves really fast away because they are finally in a balance sort of speak Picture of the flagella mechanism These rings don’t exist in the gram-positive 2 Ø The receptors get an idea of the cells environment & essentially lead the cell to the point of destination § Sense the environment in sections of time § When the sensors on the receptor begin to detect less goodness, it turns off • When it senses better things, it turns it back on & this keeps repeating itself Page 18 v With random turns, this is what happens v Proteins have to be moving through lipid bilayers. v How are they articulating through the rigid cell wall? Page 19 v Will use sulfur crystals for energy v The gas vesicles are hollow to allow the cell to float Ø Ping-Pong balls in a buttoned up shirt & jump in the lake & you float § Ping-Pong balls represent the gas vesicles v Abundance of one thing & need to make other things v Endospores Ø Survival mechanisms (not reproduction) Ø Only a few gram positives do this § Bacillus • Grows in the presence of oxygen (needs it) § Clostridium • Grows in the absence of oxygen Ø How long can one survive? § We do not have a clue • When we opened the pyramid, we took some soil samples. We know from laboratory experiments, add media to the culture tubes, the cells come back alive from being dead essentially for 20-30 years. • These have unchanged genetically since 20 million years ago. Ø Why do cells make spores? § To survive some adverse condition Page 20 v The bigger cytoplasm will engulf the small cytoplasm Ø When its all over, there will be three membranes 3 § Can see this from stage 3 v The core is just DNA Ø The layer between the last membrane & second membrane will be called the cortex v It dehydrates just before mom will give it up & becomes pickilit acid Ø Helps the cell survive thermal heat & pressure v The whole process takes about 25 minutes 4
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